Note on Appendicular Skeleton

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The skeleton which is present in the lateral side of a body is called appendicular skeleton.

Bones of upper extremity

Pictorial girdle:

Pictorial girdle is also called shoulder girdle. It provides articulation to the arm bones and surface for the attachment of tendons of biceps and triceps muscle of the upper arm.

Forelimbs:

There are 60 bones in the forelimbs having 30 bones in each limb. The bones of the forelimbs are as follows:

Humerus: Humerus is situated in the upper arm and one in each limb. It is long bone consisting rounded head, rod like shaft and hinglike the lower end.

Radius and ulna: Radius and ulna are 2 bones of the forearm of each limb. Radius lies on the inner side while ulna lies towards the little finger. Ulna is larger in size than the radius. Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus at the elbow joint and carpels at the wrist joint.

Carpels: Carpels are 8 in number in each limb and arranged in two rows of four each. They are fitted together and held in position by the ligaments.

Metacarpals: Metacarpals are 5 in number in each limb and form the palm.

Phalanges: The phalanges are 14 in number in each limb, 3 in a finger and 2 in a thumb.

Bones of lower extremity

Pelvic girdle:

Pelvic girdle is located in the lower part of the trunk. It supports and protects the abdomen, urinary bladder, reproductive organs etc. It lowers the center of gravity and helps in the erect posture. The shape of the female pelvis protects the baby in the uterus and also allows for the passage of the baby during birth.

Hind limb:

There are 60 bones in hind limbs i.e. 30 bones in each. These bones provide strength to the legs to support body weight and help in locomotion. It consists of following bones,

Femur or thigh bone: The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body. Its inner portion consists spongy bone.

Patella or knee cap: Patella is one in each leg which provides additional joint. It is small, flat and triangular bone.

Tibia and fibula: Tibia and fibula are the two bones of each leg. Tibia is also known as shin bone with large upper end and articulates with the femur. Lower ends articulates with the ankle bones. Similarly, the fibula is a long slender and weak bone that is situated on the outer side of the tibia.

Tarsals: Tarsals are 7 in each leg and they form posterior part of the foot called ankle.

Metatarsals: Metatarsals are 5 in each leg and form a larger part of the foot. They articulate with tarsal and phalanges.

Phalanges: Phalanges are 14 in each leg i.e. 2 in the big toe and 3 in each of the other toe.

  • The skeleton which is present in the lateral side of a body is called appendicular skeleton.
  • Humerus is situated in the upper arm and one in each limb.
  • Pelvic girdle supports and protects the abdomen, urinary bladder, reproductive organs etc.
  • The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body.
  • Patella in each leg which provides additional joint.
.

Very Short Questions

Shoulder girdle is also called pectoral girdle which is formed by the combination of clavicle and scapula. It provides articulation to the arm bones.

There are sixty bones in forelimbs having 30 bones in each. They are:
i) Humerus - 1
ii) Radius and ulna - 2
iii) Carpals - 8
iv) Metacarpals - 5
v) Phalanges - 14

The girdle into which the bones of legs are fitted in is called pelvic girdle. Its two functions are:
i) It protects and supports the abdominal organ such as stomach, reproductive organs etc.
ii) It connects the sacrum by strong ligaments.

The pelvic girdle of a woman is wider and lighter than that of man because female pelvic has to allow the passage for the baby during child birth.

The names and number of bones present in each hind limb are as follows:
i) Femur or thigh bone - 1
ii) Patella or knee cap - 1
iii) Tibia and fibula - 2
iv) Tarsals - 7
v) Metatarsals - 5
vi) Phalanges - 14
Total 30 bones in each hind limb

The differences between femur and humerus on the basis of their length and function are as follows:

Femur Humerus
i)It is the longest bone in human body which extends from pelvic girdle to knee. i) It extends from scapula to radius and ulna.
ii)It is the strongest bone so helps in supporting the body. ii)It supports the weight taken in hand.

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  • The skeleton which is present in the lateral side of a ______ is called Appendicular skeleton.

    cells
    bones
    blood
    body
  • How many bones in hind limbs?

    30
    10
    50
    60
  • What portion of the radius articulates with the capitulum of the humerus?

    ulnar notch
    tuberosity of radius
    head
    styloid process
  • How many phalanges are present in each hand?

    15
    14
    10
    30
  • What process makes up the outer ankle "bone"?

    medial malleolus of tibia
    lateral malleolus of fibula
    lateral epicondyle of tibia
    head of fibula
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Hands can be moved in different directions, why?


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pelvic girdle

what is the use of pelvic girdle in human body


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