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Note on Endocrine System

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It is the network of glands that secrete hormones that regulate many bodily functions.

Hormones:

They are those chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands and heterocrine glands. They are called chemical messengers because hormones carry message of one organ to another organ in the form of chemical signals.

Endocrine Glands

  1. Pituitary gland:
    It lies inside the brain box below the cerebrum. Its size is of the pea. It is also called master gland because it controls all the other endocrine glands. Those hormones that control other glands are called stimulating hormone. Other than stimulating hormone it also produces growth hormone (which is mostly produced when we sleep at night) which help us to grow (that is why children at growing phase must get proper good sleep).
  2. Thyroid gland:
    This gland is located in front of the trachea (windpipe). It produces thyroxin under the influence of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by pituitary. For the production of thyroxin iodine is needed. So, if there is low iodine in our food we suffer from goiter i.e. enlargement of thyroid gland leading to hypothyroidism.
  3. Parathyroid Gland:
    There are four parathyroid glands present just behind the thyroid gland. The hormone produced by parathyroid is parathormone which controls the calcium level in blood.
  4. Pancreas:
    This is a mixed gland. It produces both hormones and enzymes. The hormone produced by pancreas is insulin and glucagon. They are antagonistic in nature. That means one does exactly opposite of the other. Insulin increases blood sugar level whereas glucagon decreases blood sugar level.
  5. Adrenal Gland:
    There are two adrenal glands located just above the kidneys. That is why they are also called suprarenal glands. They produce various hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, epinephrine, nor-epinephrine etc.). These hormones are necessary for various body functions such as regulation of blood pressure, release of energy and many more.
  6. Testis and Ovary:
    There are two testes in male and two ovaries in females. They secrete sex hormones required for sexual maturity. They are controlled by pituitary through Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH).
S.No. Glands Location Secretion Hyposecretion Hypersecretion
1 Pituitary Skull Growth Hormone
Stimulating Hormone
Dwarfism
Growth retardation
High BP
Gigantism
2 Thyroid Throat Thyroxine
Calcitonin
Physical and mental retardation
Drying of skin
Increased rate of metabolism
Excess hunger etc.
3 Parathyroid Over thyroid Parathormone Tetany Formation of kidney stone
4 Pancreas Alimentary Canal Isulin
Glucagon
Diabities Hypoglycemia
Hyperglycemia
5 Adrenal Above Kidney Adrenalin (epinephrine)
Aldosterone
Hydrocortisol
Addison disease
Hypo-aldosteronism
Hypertension
6 Testis Scrotum Testosterone Unable to reproduce (Infertile)
7 Ovary Reproductive system female Estrogen
Progesterone
Infertile

  • Endocrine System is the network of glands that secrete hormones that regulate many bodily functions.
  • Hormones are those chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands and heterocrine glands.
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Very Short Questions

Pituitary gland gives hormones that control growth of a person. Besides this, it also produces many hormones that control the working of other glands. That's why it is known as the master gland.

Thyroid glands produce the hormone thyroxin. In the absence of iodine, thyroxin is not secreted and the glands swell. The swelling of the thyroid glands is called goiter.

Pancreas secrets two types of hormone- insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers the blood sugar which glucagon raises the blood sugar. So, pancreas controls blood sugar with the help of insulin and glucagon.

Adrenaline produced by adrenal glands on kidneys is considered as 'emergency hormone'. The hormone is secreted in large amount when a person has to do something that might be impossible under normal condition.

The function of thyroxine and insulin and the names of glands that produce those hormones are:

Hormone Function Glands
Thyroxine It contains iodine and helps in growth of the body. Thyroid glands
Insulin Controls the amount of blood sugar Pancreas

Because it is chemical messenger

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  • Pituitary gland is called master gland because ______.

    Their secretion controls the functions of other glands.


    It controls the other part of nervous system


    It secretes the hormones.


    It coordinate growth and development of body


  • Which gland maintains the calcium and phosphate level in our body?

    Adrenal


    Pituitary


    Thyroid


    Parathyroid


  • Where is Pituitary gland located?

    throat
    skull
    stomach
    above kidney
  • What is the result of hyposecration of Thyroid gland?

    Tetany
    Drying of skin, physical and mental retardation.
    Diabetes
    High B.P
  • What is the result of hypersecration of Pancreas?

    Formation of tumor
    Hypoglycemia
    Increase rate of metabolism
    Gigantism
  • Which gland secrets glucagon hormone?

    Adrenal
    Pancreas
    Thyroid
    Ovary
  • Where is adrenal gland located?

    Over thyroid


    throat


    Kidney


    Reproductive system


  • Hydrosterone hormone is secret by ______.

    Adrenal Gland


    Testes


    Thyroid Gland


    Pancreas


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What are the 4 effects of hyposecretion of insulin??????


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mahesh

why adernal gland are suprarnal gland ?


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why adernal gland is suprarenal gland ?


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