Note on Agglutination And RH factors

  • Note
  • Things to remember

Agglutination

Sometimes when the blood of 2 people is mixed together, it clump or forms visible island in the liquid plasma the red cell becomes attached to one another. this agglutination when different types blood are mixed within the body the reaction can be bursting of the red cells as well as agglutination different types of blood are recognized on the molecular level and sometimes rejected ,by being destroyed and ultimately filtred out by kidney in order to expel them from the body along with urine in this case of transfusion mistake .there can be so much of the wrong types of blood in the system that its can results in kidney failure and death this is due to fact that, when the kidney try to filter the blood they essentially become clogged as they are overwhelmed and causes being effective filters. the compositional different between clogged as they are overwhelmed so that they are relatively large protein elect that provides the biological signature of an individual blood types within blood there-there are substances called antibodies which distinguish particular antigens from other causing bursting 01 agglutination of the red cells when alien antigens are found the antibodies binds to antigens In case of angulation the antibodies "glue" together the antigens from different red cells there by sticking the red cell together.

the specific types of antigens on our red blood cell determine our blood types there are 27 known human blood system or group for which each of us can be typed as a result, there are one or more antigens for each of these blood groups since many of these blood systems also are found in apes and monkey. it is likely that they evolved prior to to the time that we become a separate species.

source:slideplayer.com
source:slideplayer.com



long before the phenomenon of blood antigen antibodies interaction was discovered surgeons experimented with human transfusion .in an attempt to save the lives of patients who were dying from severe blood loss and the resulting shocks the 1st attempt may have been an English physician during severe blood loss and the resulting shock during 19 centuries Europeans and American doctors , used transfusions in a last ditch attempts to save soldiers and other patient vice versa a rubber tube with hypodermic needles at each ends this occasionally resulted in success but more often than not killed the recipient the results seemed to be random Doctors in the "19 the century" also experimented with a variety of blood substitutes including milk water and even oil it was discovery of the ABO blood types in 1900 that finally led us to understand how to consistently use transfusions to save liver even with this knowledge however life threatening reaction still occurs in about 80000 transfusion development nation.

Blood types


A
AB
B
O
blood group A means the presence of Aantigen but the absence of B antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood group B means the presence of B antigen but an absence of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood groupAB means presence of B antigen and of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood group O means the absence of B antigen and of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.

source:en.wikipedia.org
source:en.wikipedia.org

fig blood types









Blood compatibility



blood is categorized as one of 4 types O,A,B,AB and another identifier of blood types is the RH factors indicated as either positive or negative. the RH factors are the team for the substance found on the surface of the red blood cell and is named for the rheus monkey where it was originated found RH factors are generally only an interset in obstetrics.

Genetic inheritance of blood Groups

" Scientists Bernstein's in 1924 AD was the first to find out multiple alleles in human blood group ABO which based on 3 allell".


RH Factors


the RH factors genetics information is also inherited from our parents but it is inherited independently of ABO blood type allele. there are 2 different alleles for the RH factors knowns as RH + and RH -
Someone who is Rh positive has least one RH+ allele but could have two their genotypes could be either RH+ or RH - .some one RH - has a like ABO alleles each biological arents donates one their .this couple couldA father who is RH+ could pass either an RH + or RH allel to his son or daughter this couple would have RH + children or RH - children.

Rh blood types were discovered is 1940 by Kal land Steiner and alexander wiener this was 40 years after land Steiner had discovered the ABO blood group over ,the last half century we have learned far more about the processes responsible for RH types this blood group ,may be the most complex genetically of all blood types system ,since for RH types this blood group may be most complex genetically of all blood types systems since it involves 45 different antigens on the surface of red cell that are controlled by 2 closed linked genes chromosomes 1 the RH system was named after rhesus monkey since they were initially used in the research to make the antiserum for typing blood sample.

clinically the RH factors like ABO factors can lead to serious medical complication the greatest problem with RH group is not so many incompatibilities following transfusion .as those between a mother and her developing fetus mother-fetus incompletely occurs as those between a mother nad fetus the risk increase with each pregnancy Europeans are like to have this problem 13 % of new born babies are at risk .actually these babies of European birth have complication with prevention treatment this number can be cut down even further less than 1 % of those treated have trouble, however, Rh blood types incomplatiblitely is still the leading cause of potentially fatal blood related problems of the newborn.

source:www.keyword-suggestions.com
source:www.keyword-suggestions.com
figure Rh factors

Reference:

Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.



  1. blood group A means presence of A antigen but absence of B antigens with presence of recevice gene 
  2. blood group B means prence of B antigen but absence of A antigens with presence of recevice gene
  3. blood groupAB means prence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene
  4. blood group O means absence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene.
  5. blood is categoized as one of 4 types O,A,B,AB and another identifier of blood types is the RH factors
  6. the RH factors genetics information is also inherited from our parents
  7.  it is inhereted independently of ABO blood type allel there are 2 different allel for the RH facotrs knowns as RH + and RH -
.

Very Short Questions

0%

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

No discussion on this note yet. Be first to comment on this note