Note on Diseases Of Circulation And Bloods Production

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Diseases of circulation

That disaese which-which causes effect on the circulation are called the disease of circulation .The disease of circulations is as followed-

1 thrombosis

it is a blood clot which forms within a vessel and blocks the blood flow. these can result from surgery or from within a vessels and blocks blocks ,the flow of the blood theses results from surgery or from conditions like atrial fibrillation, An embolus moving thrombosis which may get stuck somewhere if thrombi or emboli lodge in an artery supplying blood to the heart this can cause a coronary embolism or heart attack.

2 hemorrhage -

it is bleeding ,especially profuse and can be severe if internal.

3 hematoma

It is local swelling or tumor filled with blood a bruise especially a large one sometimes. if the injury is extensive it can qualify as it heals leading to a hard lump.

4 hemorrhoids

it are dilated or varicose veins in the anal area typically these are caused not enough fibre .in diet causing the feces to be very hard so person has to strain to pass them increasing the number of fibers in one's diet can help prevent hemorrhage and possible aid in healing cases because vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis, it is necessary for strong capillary walls so that and the bioflavonoid rutin have proven useful for strength blood vessels and preventing treating hemorrhoids and other various veins.

5 edema
It is the accumulation of fluids within tissue and the lymph system. there are many possible causes of edema from injury to too much salt to improperly functionally kidneys to lack of exercises to female hormonal changes.

6 Raynaud's phenomenon
it is seen in patients when they get cold spasms in tiny arterioles muscles causes the circulation in portion of the finger or toe ,to completely true off and that portion of the figure turn completely white as the person was up and the circulation is restored initially .these areas of the figure will be cyanotic then will be flushed and red before returning to normal the Merck ,manual suggest that there are may relations between migraine headaches and Raynaud's ,diagnosis is confirmed
by testing the blood pressure in not only the brachial artery but also the radial and ulnar arteries and using tiny cuff made of velcro and aquarium tubing each figure both when the person is comfortable warm and when the person hands been soaking in ice water in winter weather.

7 arteriosclerosis

It is a genetic term for number of disease in which the arterial wall becomes thickened and lose elasticity one special forms of this os .it which is built up of lipids of blood vessels major risk factors of this is hypertension evaluated serum lipids elevated LDL and lowered HDL levels may risk factor are smoking peoples ,alcoholic peoples.

Production and degradation of blood cells

Production is done by bone marrow and gets degenerated and gets collected to the spleen .the proteins components are found and is taken up by liver while hormonal production is produced by ,the endocrine glands and the watery fractions regulatory by the hypothalamus and maintained by kidney and indirectly by the guts Blood cells degenerated by the liver and the spleens by helping them in the destruction of it.

Mammalian blood

It is composed of several kinds of cell this formed element of the blood constitutes about 45 % of whole blood the normal PH of human arterial blood is approximately 7.40 a weak alkaline solution blood level below 7.35 is acidic while blood Ph above 4.45 is alkaline,blood PH along with arterial carbon dioxide tension and Hco3 reading are helpful in determining the acid-base balance of the body.
the cells are:-
1 Red blood cell or erythrocytes in males , mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles they contain the blood hemoglobins and distribute oxygen the red blood cells are also marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types.
2 white blood cells or leukocytes are part of the immune system.
3 platelets or thrombocytes are responsible for blood clotting.

blood plasma is essentially an aqueous solution 92% water , 8% blood plasma proteins and trace amounts of other materials some components are albumin,blood clotting factors immunoglobulins , hormones and various other proteins.

Blood factors

1 the average healthy adults contains between 5 to 6 quarts of blood,
2 Cubic millimeter of human blood contains about 5 million red blood cells,
3 Red blood cells are formed in the bone marrows,
4 distribution of blood in different organ,

body's muscles - about 15 %
bones - 6 %
body skin - about 5 %
brain - about 14 %
kidney - about 22%
heart - about 27 %

Blood types

blood group A means the presence of An antigen but an absence of B antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood group B means the presence of B antigen but the absence of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood groupAB means the presence of B antigen and of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.
blood group O means the absence of B antigen and of A antigens with the presence of receive gene.

fig blood types

Disease of blood

1 wounds can cause major blood loss the thrombosis cause the blood to coagulate blocking relatively minor wound but
large ones must be repaired at speed to prevent exsanguination. Damage to the internal organs can cause severe internal bleeding or homage.

2 circulation blockage can also create many medical conditions from ischemia in the short term to tissue necrosis and gangrene in the long term.

3 hemophilia is the genetic illness that causes dysfunction in one of the blood clotting mechanism. this can allow otherwise inconsequential wounds to be life-threatening but more commonly results in hemorrhage or bleeding into joint spaces which can be crippling.

4 leukemia is a group of cancer of the blood-forming tissue.

5 major blood loss whether traumatic or not as well as certain blood diseases like anemia and thalassemia can require the blood transfusion ,several countries have blood banks to fill the demand for transfusable blood.

6 blood is an important vector of infection HIV the virus which causes AIDS is transmitted through contact between blood semen or the bodies of infected person hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily through blood contact.

7 infection of the blood is bacteremia or sepsis .malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood borne parastate infections.


Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.

  1. those disaese which which causes effect on the circulation are called disease of circulation
  2. The diesease of circulations 
  3. Production is done by bone marrow and gets degenerated and gets colleted to the spleen the proteins compoments are found 
  4.  wounds can cause major blood loss the thrombosis cause the blood to coagulate blocking relatively minor wound but large ones must be repaired at speed to prevent exsanguination 

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