It a part of the reproductive system ,which deals with the ways of the baby being burn in womb.
it consists of internal and external genitalia :-
1 labia majora – it is the outermost covering of female genitalia.
2 labia minora- its and internal to labia majora.
3 Clitoris – it homologous to the penis.
4 Hymen- it represents the virginity for female and is a thin layer of skin like structure.
5 greater vestibular gland.
6 mammary gland.
– the primary sex organ is the pair of almond shaped ovaries lies in the shallows fossae lateral walls of the pubis one on either side of uterus .they are held in their position by flod of peritoneum called "mesovarium".And lies in the shallow fossa on the lateral wall of the pubis.
– it is also called fallopian tubes. there are two uterine tubes each of 10 cm long. they originate from 2 sides of the uterus between the fundus and the body .the free ends of these tubes opens into the abdominal cavity ,close to the ovaries the opening of each tube consists of the figure like projection called" fimbriae".
it is thick walled hallow muscular pear-shaped flattened anterior- posterior organ situated in the pelvic cavity above .And behind the urinary bladder or in between urinary bladder and rectum .the wall of the uterus is made up of three main layers endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium .
- the cervix of uterus follows vagina. it is fibro muscular tube of average 7.5 cm in length.That connects internal and external reproductive organ . it lies between the bladder in front and rectum behind running obliquely .
the primary ovarian follicle enlarges accompanying the growth of primary oocytes .the follicular epithelium cells also divides to form multiplayered epithelium during this process a cavity is formed the follicular cavity.This cavity is filled up with fluid the oocyte finally becomes free from the epithelium and start to float.In the fluid this follicle is now called mature Graafian follicle it finally ruptures is now called "mature garfian follicle" librating secondary oocyte this process of called" ovulation".
after the puberty in 12 to 13 years ,the gamete production in females is a cyclic process.That repeat in approximately every 28 days .During this cycle, there is a structural change as weel as ,
physiology change in which whole female reproduction system. this cycles process is called "menstrual cycle".They take place in the ovarinan cycle and the uterine cycle respectively.
the follicle stimulating from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the development of primary ovarian follicles. This hormone helps in the maturation of primary oocytes" LH" from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates .the follicular cells to secrete steroids called oestradiol . the increased concentration of estradiol gives negative feed back mechanism which causes an inhibition of the LSH takes place.So that LH stimulation causes increased in the maturation of the oocytes which are inclosed inside the follicles called "grafian follicles" .After which due to stimulation of LH increased which causes the stimulation and rupture of the garfiilice follicles and comes out the ovary which or the remaining follicle is called "corpus lutenum".
AS show in the figure below uterine cycles takes place under the influence of the FSH andLH causing estradiol and progesterone secretion ,in which there is the development of the endometrium estradiol . and this takes place under the following condition.
in this phase there is rupture of the endometrium along with blood vessels ,causing all bleeding also know as bleeding phase this takes place till 3 to 5 days.
there would be a decreased amount of progesterone and estrogen.
this phase occurs simulationsuly takes place 9 to 10 days, there is proliferation of the endometrium takes place on the influence of the estrogen.
this phase is stimulated by progesterone hormones ,during which there is secretion of mucus by tubular glands takes place between 14 to 15 days.
it is the condition in women or female in which, there is stop age of the menstrual cycles occurs in the old age female.
it is the t time in which there is 1st-time influence of stimulation of the growth hormones in the female body ,which takes place during the age of 12 to 13 .
Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069
Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.
Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.