Note on Circulation

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Circulation


the system related with the circulation of internal body fluid through definite vessels its of 2 types:-
1 blood circulation or circulatory system.
1 open types – without definitinite blood vessels.
close types with defined blood vessels
2 Lymphati circulatory system.
Blood Circulatiory system
the action wchih helps in the supply of useful materai and removal of wastes from the body cells defined is called circulatory system.


Funculatory system


the functions are as followed :-
a Distibution of nutrients.
b Collection of waste product.
c Transportion of repiratory gasses.
D transportation of intermediate products.
dissipation of heart .
f transportation of hormones.
g uniform distribution of water , inorganic ions
protection against disesases
types of circulatory system :-
they are of 2 types arthropods like instect and spiders have open circulatory system and vertebrades like human have a closed circulatory system.In which the blood stays in the circulatiory system as it circulates and chemicals are exchanged by diffusion.

open circulatory system

blood flows through a small blood vessel but also through large opne spaces and channels called sinuses ,and lacunae to all part of body.All the living are lies in direct contact with the blood blood flows under very low pressure, due to absence pumping organ like heart heart pumps blood into a small aorta which beances into many arteris arteries and leads into many lare space i.e. sinuses and small spaces blood takes longer time to circulate through whole body blood returns into heart through open endded.

Closed circulatory system


blood flows through closed chamber and blood vessels and froming system ,there is no direct contact of living tissue with blood blood flows with great pressure.Due to the storage pumping action of heart heart pumps oxyentated blood into aorta which beanches into arteries and arteroiols and finally into a network of capillaries.All over the body blood takes sorter time of circulate than open collected by veins exchange of nutrients and gases takes place from where these passed into tissue.
human heat human heart is hollow conical valvular pulsatile and muscular organ place above the diaphgram ,between the lungs in the mediasteum of chest about two third of heart lies to the left of the midline.It is attached to the breastbone by special connective tissue called "ligament thea". heart has four chambers anterior ,borader and softer atrial part includes right and left atria and posterior conical and harder venticular .
ventricular part includes right and left ventrical the adult heart is approximately the size of fist of the owner in average adut human heart it is about 5 inch long and 3 a half inch longer and three and half inches across at its broader art the outer layer of pericardium is is thick and fibrous .And is know as parietal pericardium the pericardium is smooth serous membreanes visceral pericardium.

groves


groves are the artrial Groves groves are the arterial part of heart is sparated by, shallow vertical groves which are the general land marks between left and the right aria called intra atrial sulcus.
Internal structure of heart .



histology


heart consists of myocardium which is called ardiac muscles which are breanhed in fribes :-

heart beat
systolic and diastole it can be defined aspropagated wave of muscles contaction or rhythmic contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscles called heart beat.It takes 0.8 sec in a normal man average is 70 to s8 times per minutes
mechanism of circulation of heart .
1 systemiin :-
the left ventricle has has high pressure pump circulation. it mains jobs is to produce enogh pressure to push blood out of heart and into bodys circulation when the blood vessels blood leave .The left ventricles it enters the aorta there are valve located at the opening of aorta there are arteries called coronary atreies. that take some of the body organ than the lungs the deoxygenated blood from the body organs returned to the right atrium through two large veins ie superior and inferior venacava and from the hreat wall through a coronary artey.
the right atrium pumps this deoxygenated blood tio the right ventricale.
2 pulmonary circulation :-
the right side of the heart is low pressure side. it main job is to push the RBC cargo bays mostly empty now up to the lungs ,so that they can get recharged with oxygen after the blood out towards the lungs the blood leveas.The right ventricale and entre the pulmonatry aorta and then to artery. this artery and its two branches aare the only arteries in the blody to carry deoxygenated blood when the blood has picked up its oxygen it enters some blood vessels knowns as pulmonary veins
is fully oxygenated blood and its now in vein the pulmonary veins empty into left atrium.
Atrieal blood pressure
it transport blood to body tissue under high pressure during pumping action of heart .
arterial System
the blood vessels which carry aways blood from the heart to different parts of body is collectively called "arterial system "

which is :-
1 aortic system
2 pulmonary system

1 aortic system
the aortic system is the lagest vessles in the systemic circuit arising, froim the base of left ventricles the bodys largest blood vessel the aorta , arch out of heart and own towards the lower body and figure explains all to you .


2 pulmonary sustem
the pulmonary aorta arises from the base of right ventricle and extends upwards and branches into two arteies from lung. the right pulmonary artey is longer and larger and runs horizontally outwards to the base of right lungs where, it divides into breances from the two lobes the left pulmonary arteies is horte and somewhat smaller the right lobes is divides into two breanches for the two lobes. it carries impure blood from the right side of heart to lungs for oxygenation.

The venous System
this system collect blood from the body extremities and bring back to heart it constitutes :-
1 systemic venacava system
it bring back blood from the superior and inferior venacava.
superior venacava is made of right and left brachio cephalic veins. Each veins is the union of external jugular vein . internal jugular vein and subclavein veins.
2 portal system
the vein which collect blood from certain organ by a set capillaries and supplies it to specific organs by another set of capillaries instead it to heart .the vein are so called portal vein and the system is called portal system .
3 pulmonary system
four pulmonary vein draining each lung carry oxygenated blood to left atrium of the heart from the pulmonary capillary.In which blood takes oxygen and gives up carbon dioxides the oxygenated blood takes the oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide the oxygenated blood veins two from hilum of each lungs.

Diseases of circulation


1 throbosis -
2 hemorrhage
3 hematoma
4 hemorrhoids
5 edema
6 raynaud’s phenomenon
7 arteriosceroisis



production and degradation of blood cells
Production is done by bone marrow and gets degenerated and gets colleted to the spleen .


Blood types
A
AB
B
O
blood group A means presence of A antigen but absence of B antigens with presence of recevice gene.
blood group B means prence of B antigen but absence of A antigens with presence of recevice gene.
blood groupAB means prence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene.
blood group O means absence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene.



Reference:

Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.

 

  1.  groves are the artrial Groves groves are the arterial part of heart is sparated by shallow
  2. vertical groves which are the general land marks between left and the right aria called intra atrial sulcus
  3. blood group A means presence of A antigen but absence of B antigens with presence of recevice gene 
  4. blood group B means prence of B antigen but absence of A antigens with presence of recevice gene
  5. blood groupAB means prence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene
  6. blood group O means absence of B antigen and of A antigens with presence of recevice gene. 
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Kamlesh

Why blood is considered as connective tissues?


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