Note on Human Disease Non Communicable Disease

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NON communicable disease


these are the disesase which doesn’t transfer from person to person.
Cancer is the name of crab which is used as symbol to denote the disesase . The study of cancer is called Oncology .The tumor fromed by uncontrol cell division can be 2 types :-
1 Bengin tumor .
- they are localized tumors and are bound within a connective tissue coating . They do not spread over the surrounding tissue,They are not fatal or harmful. Eg. Moles and warts.
2 Malignant Tumors
- They are cancerous of harmfull and spread into the surrounding tissue by 2 means invasive and metastastaiss. Invasion is the penetration of the cells of malignant tumor into the neighboring tissue into the neighboring tissue .Where they form invasion tumors. Metatastasis is the penetration of cancerous cell into the blood capillaries from where they are carried o different pasrts of body .

Types of Cancer

a Carcinoma – it is the cancer of epithelial lining.
b Sarcoma – it is cancer of connective tissue or muscles.
c leukemia – cancer of blood cells (WBC0 . they above three are the majors and the other sub catagories ares are :-
1 lipoma.
2 lymphoma.
3 Melanoma.
4 teratoma.
5 Myeloma.
6 Myoma.
Cause of cancer
- they are the cancer causing agent or risk factors called as carcinogens:-
1 physical agents (radiation )

22 Biological agents ( virus )- virus do not cause cancer but is a risk factor
Chemical agents .

preventation of cancer


vitamin supplements- vitamin A prevents carcinoma, Vit E , anti oxidents, Vit C
2 roughage
- fibrous rich food stimulates peristalsis and prevent gut cancer.
Low –calorie diet – reduction in calories intakes

Symptoms (warning signs )


- in colon cancer the nature of stool keeps changing with un explained weight loss.
- in breast cancer there can be lumpy nodes indication.
- in case of wart or mole the nature of tissue changes from time to time .
- in case of throat cancer there is resistant hoarseness and coughing.
- Pap smear test – it is the test for cervical cancer.


Detection
- on the basis of blood or biopsy .
- X-ray.
- Ct scane or MrI.
- by using monoclonal anti bodies .
- the cancer causing genes called oncogenes are present on the normal cell but they remain suppressed .

treatmeant


1 Surgery .
2 radiation .
3 chemotherapy.
4 Grafting or transplantation.
5 In certain types of cancer, the imuunotherapy , use of monoclonal , anto bodies , can be ery effective.


Reference:

Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.

 

  1. Bengin tumor . they are localized tumors and are bound within a connective tissue coating . 
  2. Malignant Tumors They are cancerous of harmfull and spread into the surrounding tissue by 2 means invasive and metastastaiss.
  3.  In certain types of cancer, the imuunotherapy , use of monoclonal , anto bodies , can be ery effective
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