Note on Pregnancy

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Pregnancy is an important phase in the reproduction of a mother. The reproduction life of a female starts with men ache and ends with menopause. Pregnancy can be defined as the physiological condition of a woman that starts with the birth of the conception and lasts with the birth of the baby. The normal period of pregnancy is generally considered nine months and seven days or 280 days. However, fertilization occurs fourteen days prior to the date of the expected missed period. Therefore, the exact duration of pregnancy is 280 to fourteen or sixty days.


Signs and Symptoms during Pregnancy

The following are signs and symptoms are observed during pregnancy:

  1. Amenorrhea/ Stopped menstruation: The menstruation in pregnant woman stops, as the ovum is already fused with the sperm. Sometimes the menstrual date can be changed some days earlier or later. It is wise to wait for at least ten days after the expected date of menstruation to consider occurrence of pregnancy.
  2. Breast change: During the early phase of pregnancy, woman experience the changes of breast such as heaviness, discomfort and tingling in the breast. As pregnancy progresses, the beast become large, the nipple and areola enlarge and become more pigmented.
  3. Exhaustion: Pregnant women feel sleepiness and lack of the interest to do any work. They feel tired and heavy.
  4. Morning sickness: During the early phase of pregnancy, the woman experience nausea in the morning, even accompanied by vomiting.
  5. Enlargement of the uterus: With the development of the fetus, the abdomen of the pregnant woman enlarges. It grows out of the pelvis in the supra- pubic region about twelve weeks and reaches umbilicus at twenty-two weeks.
  6. Skin change: The skin of the armpit and breast that becomes dark within twenty four weeks, (called chloasma) in the cheek is observed.

Problems during Pregnancy

There are various types of problem that are observed during pregnancy period. These problems are categorized as minor and major problems. As the pregnancy period is special stage, many pregnant woman face various problems. Pregnant woman should be handled with care. It is very sensitive stage.


Minor problems of Pregnancy

Pregnant woman face the following minor problems:

  • Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
  • Swelling of vein of leg
  • Anaemea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of sleep
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling of gum
  • Nasal bleeding
Major problems of pregnancy
Pregnancy is a serious case. Woman face various problems during this stage. Some women's pregnancy is completed without any problems. But some women have to face complex and major problems. Some of the major problems are described below:
  • Abortion: Abortion can be defined as terminating pregnancy before 20 weeks. It is the expulsion of fetus before becoming variable to survive. There are two types pf abortion spontaneous and induced. Expulsion of alive or dead fetus before 20 weeks is called spontaneous abortion. Expulsion of fetus with the desire to kill it or terminate the pregnancy by using medicine is called induced abortion.
  • Oedema: Due to extra 5-6 liters of water accumulated by woman during pregnancy oedema is caused. Lower limbs are swollen because of load of increasing baby in womb. Pressed veins get swelled. There might be problem of increasing weight unnecessarily. To maintain the weight in normal state, attention should be paid on meal.

  • The reproduction life of a female starts with men ache and ends with menopause. 
  • Pregnancy can be defined as the physiological condition of a woman that starts with the birth of the conception and lasts with the birth of the baby.
  • Amenorrhea/ Stopped menstruation,Breast change, Exhaustion, Morning sickness, Enlargement of the uterus, Skin change etc are symptoms of pregnancy.
  • Abortion can be defined as terminating pregnancy before 20 weeks.
  • Due to extra 5-6 liters of water accumulated by woman during pregnancy oedema is caused.
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Very Short Questions

When an ovum in a woman's fallopian tube is invaded by a male sperm, it is called conception. Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes of human beings, 22 pairs carry physical characteristics and one pair determines the sex. The chromosomes which determine the sex are called sex chromosomes. In male, two kinds of chromosomes are found. They are x and y chromosomes. If the ovum is fertilized by y bearing sperm, the offspring will be a boy and if it is fertilized by x bearing sperm, the offspring will be a girl.

Pregnancy is the period from conception to delivery of the baby. The characteristics of pregnancy are:

  • Menstruation stops and breast becomes heavy and tender.
  • Some women experience a sense of fullness of the abdomen and "morning sickness."
  • Willingness urinates frequently.
  • Dandruff appears on face.
  • After four or five months of conception, the movement of fetus is noticed.
  • Fatigue and tiredness develops.

Premature expulsion of fetus weighing less than 500 g or before 20 weeks of conception from the womb of the mother is called abortion.
The reasons of spontaneous abortion are:

  • Severe deformities in the womb or in the other reproductive organs of the mother.
  • Chronic and viral diseases to the mother.
  • Malnutrition
  • Injury or exertion to the uterus.
  • Excessive work done by the mother.
  • Mental tension and torture to the mother.
  • Heredity
  • Lack of sanitation and infections.
  • Alcoholic, drugs, or tobacco intoxication.
  • Intake of poisonous food.

It is the abortion deliberately or intentionally made due to certain reasons. Parents may abort the fetus in difficult situations.
The reasons of induced abortion are:

  • Migration
  • War
  • Economic problems
  • Pregnancy from external factors.
  • Pressure from external factors.
  • Conception due to rape cause
  • Failure of the contraceptive devices.
  • Conception of due to incest and sex abuse.

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  • How long is a full-term pregnancy?

    42 weeks
    38 weeks
    39 weeks
    40 weeks
  • What nutrient has been shown to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in infants if consumed by the mother at least one month before conception ?

    calcium
    None of these
    iron
    Folic acid
  • Which of the following is not a benefit of breast-feeding?

    Increases weight in postpartum women
    also help children avoid a host of diseases that strike later in life,
    Breastfeeding protects baby from a long list of illnesses
    Protects against infections, allergies, chronic diseases, and may enhance brain development
  • Any interruption of pregnancy before twenty eight weeks of pregnancy, starting from sight vaginal bleeding to complete expulsion of the product of conception is called______ .

    abortion
    labor
    pregnency
    conception
  • Which of the following is the problem of pregnancy related to digestive system?

    Cramps
    Constipation
    Leucorrhea
    Fainting
  • Varicose vain is one of the problem related to pregnancy related to ______.

    musculo- skeletal system
    circulatory system
    digestive system
    genetio-urinary system
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Sanskriti shrestha

In which condition pregnancy is dangerous? Explain.


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