Health is fundamentally and intrinsically important to living a worthwhile human life. Good health itself is an end of all human endeavors. Health inhabits access to opportunities in education, work, income earning, political and cultural participation and other salient and value dimensions of human life. Good health has broadly and appropriately been defined as a condition of overall human well- being. But, the status of health is described and assessed here in relation to reproductive health. The Interrelation Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program defined reproductive health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but also imparting sound knowledge in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its function and process'.
Reproductive health is a condition when women and men enjoy a satisfying and safe sex and the capacity to reproduce offspring and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do sex. All people have the right to access safe, effective, affordable family planning of their choice, as well as appropriate maternal care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth and bring up a healthy child. Such services will also help to protect women and men from HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. Empowering women with knowledge and awareness about health is fundamental to achieving global health.
The reproductive health embraces human growth and development, mother and child care, human reproduction, immunization, nutrition, maternal mortality, family planning and other related activities. The aim of reproductive health is to improve the quality of life of the family. So, the concept of reproductive health was bought in light in 1994 A.D. from the international conference on population and development held in Cairo.
Aspects of Reproductive Health
Reproductive health includes the structure and functioning of the reproductive system. Besides, the physical and emotional changes associated with the development process come under reproductive health. The physical, mental and social well-being of a person is highly affected by reproductive process and nature of family.
Therefore, various aspects of life which are related to reproductive health and happy life are described below:
- Planning of family:A planning on handling and management of family income and resources to provide a happy life to family members is considered as planning of family. It deals with the sources of income and size of family, family education, age at marriage, number of children, use of contraceptives and other related aspects which help a family to achieve better and healthy living. Healthy and happy family life is only possible through the planning of family. So, its importance has been increasing day by day.
- Safe motherhood: It is an important aspect of reproductive health to provides safe maternal health. Five lakhs women die annually in average due to the problem associated with the delivery in the world. The major problems related to safe motherhood are caused due to early marriage and early pregnancy, uncontrolled birth, lack of child spacing and lack of education.
- Prevention and Treatment of problem aroused due to the abortion: Abortion is a social crime. It is an induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus has developed. The unsafe abortion may create various problems which may sometimes lead to maternal death. Thus, the prevention and control of abortion and treatment of problem aroused due to abortion. It is one of the reproductive health.
- Neonatal and Child Health Care: It is very important to take care of infant or child after birth. Neonatal and child health care is largely connected with reproductive health. If proper health care is given to the child or infant, it helps to decrease infant and child morbidity and mortality rate and their health problems too. We should provide nutritious food, love,balance diet, hygiene, and sanitation, timely and regular health check up, proper breastfeeding, etc to the infant and child. We should keep our environment clean. We should save them from minor accidents. The health of infant and child determines the reproductive health condition.
- Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs): There are various types of diseases related with reproductive health and organ. A large number of people are affected by such diseases like reproductive tract infection, HIV, and AIDS, etc. Some of the sexual diseases are very hard to cure. People suffer from sexual diseases due to unsafe sexual behaviours and unhealthy sexual habit. If these diseases are not cured and prevented in time then there is a high chance of suffering from sterility, cervical cancer, prostate cancer etc. So, people should be aware of the sexual diseases and their effects. And to make people aware, reproductive health education would be the best idea.
- Infertility:Infertility is the inability of a person, men or women to reproduce by natural means. Infertility causes failure in the birth of the baby. The defects and improper functioning of reproductive organs related with husband and wife are responsible for infertility. According to the Mayo Clinic, USA, about 20% of cases of infertility cases are due to problems in man, 40% to 50% of cases of infertility are due to problems in women and 30% to 40% of cases of infertility are due to the problems related to both men and women. Some of the causes of infertility are sexually transmitted diseases, illegal drugs, abnormal semen, problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes, ovulation disorders, alcohol consumption, eating disorders,being obese or overweight etc. Many problems related to infertility can be solved if consults the fertility experts in time.
- Adolescent's Reproductive Health: Adolescents means the group of people of age between 10 to 19 years. Adolescents mean the age of change. There is physical, mental, social and emotional change. In this age, they are also involved in various sexual behaviours like premarital sex, unsafe sex, early pregnancy etc. It is an important aspect of reproductive health. So, adolescents should be aware of the reproductive health.Sexual and reproductive health for adolescents should be in priority.
- Reproductive Health of Adult Women: Women becomes infertile due to the menopause after crossing the age of 45 It causes various problems like cervical cancer, breast cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, high blood pressure and also some psychological problems such as empty nest syndrome. So, adult women should be aware of this problems face after menopause. They should do regular health check- up.