Note on Phanerogams

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

Those plants that bear flower and fruits after their maturity are called phanerogams. So mostly, they reproduce sexually.

Flower:

The reproductive part of the plant is called flower. It contains calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. There are two types of flower.

  • Complete flowers (bisexual flowers / dioecious flowers):
    Those flowers that have all four parts,calyx,corolla,androecium and gynoecium, are called complete flowers.

  • Unisexual flowers or incomplete flowers or monoecious flower:
    Those flowers, which contain only three parts of flower and lack one part, either androecium or gynoecium, are called incomplete flowers. They are also divided into two types:
    • Staminate flower: Those flowers that lack gynoecium but contain calyx, corolla and stamen is called the staminate flower. They are also called the male flower.
    • Pistillate flower: These flowers have calyx, corolla and gynoecium but lack androecium. They are also called the female flower.

Pollination:

The process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a same or different flower is called pollination. There are two types of pollination:

  1. Self-pollination: The pollination (the process of transfer of pollen grains) that occurs in the same flower is called self-pollination. This type of pollination only occurs in the complete flower. No natural agents like air, water or insect is required for this process.
  2. Cross-pollination: The pollination (the process of transfer of pollen grains) that occurs between two flowers is called cross-pollination. This occurs in both unisexual and bisexual flower. The external agents like a bee, air, other insects, water etc. are required.

Fertilization:

The process of fusion of male and female gamete to produce zygote is called fertilization.

General classification and characters of Phanerogams:

source:www.web-formulas.com
source:www.web-formulas.com
    1. Gymnosperms:

      • They contain naked seed. They do not bear true fruit.
      • They contain cone instead of flower.
      • The cones are mostly unisexual. Therefore, cross-pollination occurs in gymnosperms.
      • Plants are shrubs or trees. Herbs are absent.
      • They are terrestrial in habitat and are mostly found on dry land.
      • E.g. Pinus, Cycus


    2. Angiosperm:

      • They contain seed enclosed in seed coat and contain true fruit.
      • They contain both unisexual and bisexual flowers. Therefore, both cross-pollination and self-pollination are possible.
      • It is the largest division of plants that contain wide diversity of plants.

      Angiosperms are further divided into two sub-divisions:

      • Monocotyledons:
        • They contain only one cotyledon on their seed.
        • They have parallel venation in their leaf.
        • They have a fibrous root system.
        • Their vascular bundle is scattered.
        • E.g. maize, rice, bamboo etc.

      • Dicotyledons:
        • They contain two cotyledons on their leaf.
        • They have reticulate venation in their leaf.
        • They have tap root system.
        • Their vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
        • E.g. mustard, pea etc.

  • Phanerogams bear flowers and fruits after their maturity. It is divided into gymnosperm and angiosperm. Angiosperm is further divided into monocotyledon and dicotyledon.
  • Complete flower has all reproductive parts of plants are calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium but incomplete flower lack either gynoecium or androecium.
  • The process of transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of a same or different flower is called pollination. Self and cross-pollination are its types.
  • Gymnosperms are cone-bearing naked seeded plants which are unisexual and does cross-pollination. E.g. Pinus, Cycus
  • Angiosperms are enclosed seeded plants which are both unisexual and bisexual which can do both cross and self-pollination .
  • Monocotyledonous plants have only one cotyledon on their seed, parallel venation in leaves, and fibrous root. E.g. maize, rice, bamboo etc.
  • Dicotyledonous plants have two cotyledons in their seed, reticulate venation in their leaves ,and tap root. E.g. mustard, pea etc.
.

Very Short Questions

The two characteristics of Gymnosperms are:

  1. These plants bear different male and female flowers i.e. unisexual flowers.
  2. The seed is not enclosed in fruit i.e. seed is naked.

The examples of Gymnosperms are Cycas and Pinus.

Angiosperms have two sub-divisions- Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous plants.

i. Cycas Division- Gymnosperms
ii. Onion Division- Angiosperms [sub-division- Monocot]
iii. Maize Division- Angiosperms [sub-division- Monocot]
iv. Frog Division- Chordata (class- Amphibia)

The main characteristic property of sub-kingdom Phanerogams of plant kingdom is that the members bear flowers.

a. Pinus- It is naked-seeded plant i.e. the seed is not enclosed inside.
b. Onion- It has fibrous roots.
c. Lizard- Its body is covered with dry scales.
d. Whale- It has a four chambered heart.

Monocot plants Dicot plants
  1. They have leaves with parallel venation.
  2. They have only one seed leaf (cotyledon)
e.g. rice, wheat
  1. They have leaves with reticulate venation
  2. They have two seed leaves (cotyledons)
e.g. orange, sunflower

Angiosperms Gymnosperms
  1. The seeds are enclosed in fruits.
  2. The flowers may be unisexual or bisexual. E.g. maize, sunflower
  1. The seeds are naked, i.e. not enclosed in fruits.
  2. The flowers are always unisexual. E.g. Cycas, Pinus.

The two characteristics of Gymnosperms are:

  1. These plants bear different male and female flowers i.e. unisexual flowers.
  2. The seed is not enclosed in fruit, i.e. seed is naked.
The examples of Gymnosperms are Cycas and Pinus.

The major main characteristics of angiosperm division in plant kingdom are as follows:-
Seeds are enclosed in fruits.
Plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
Fruits and seeds are produced from flowers.

Following are the main reasons for regarding Phanerogams as more developed than cryptogams:

  1. The plants have clear root, stem, leaf, branch, flower and seed.
  2. Vascular tissue system is well developed.

0%
  • Which one is also called male flower?

    Unisexual flowers
    Bisexual flowers
    Pistillate flower
    Staminate flower
  • Those flowers, which contain only three parts of flower and lack one part, either androecium or gynoecium, are called ______ .

    Unisexual flowers
    incomplete flowers
    monoecious flower
    All of them
  • The process of fusion of male and female gamete to produce zygote is called ______.

    Fertilization
    Pollination
    Angiosperm
    Phanerogams
  • Angiosperms are further divided into two sub divisions they are ______.

    unisexual and bisexual flowers


    None of above


    Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons


    Pistillate and Staminate flower


  • How many types of flower ?

    3
    5
    2
    4
  • Complete flowers and Unisexual flowers are the ______.

    Types of flower
    The only character of a flower
    Parts of flower
    None of above
  • You scored /6


    Take test again

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report
Ayush Shrestha

Why xylem and phloem are vascular tissues


You must login to reply