Note on Chordates and Vertebrates

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

Animal Kingdom

Chordata:

  • They have a semi-flexible rod that runs along the length of animals called notochord. Some chordates lose notochord while growing up but in any stage of life, they have to have the notochord.
  • Chordates have dorsal nerve chord that is hollow.
  • Chordates have Pharyngeal gill slits. It is an opening in between pharynx (throat) and outside. This feature also may not be present in adult but in any one stage of life.
  • All chordates have a post-anal tail which is an extension of notochord past anus. This feature also may not be present in adult but in any one stage of life.
 

Vertebrates:

  • They have a vertebral column to support their body.
  • The brain is enclosed in a brain box or cranium.
  • Their heart is present at the ventral surface.
  • The circulatory system is a closed type. Blood is mostly red in color due to the presence of hemoglobin.
  • The coordination of the body is under control of brain.
 

Terminology:

  1. Unisexual animals: Those animals in which male and female individuals are separate are called unisexual animals.
  2. Bisexual animals: Those animals, which contain male and female reproductive organs in the same individual, are called bisexual animals. They are also called the hermaphrodite.
  3. Fertilization: The process of fusion of male and female gamete is called fertilization. There are two types of fertilization:
    • Internal fertilization: The fertilization, the process of fusion of male and female gamete, which takes place inside the female body, is called internal fertilization. It occurs in higher vertebrates. It is safer and no watery medium is required.
    • External fertilization: The fertilization, the process of fusion of male and female gamete, which takes place out of the female body, is called external fertilization. It occurs in lower vertebrates. For this fertilization to occur water medium is required and it is not safe.

  • Chordata is the animals having a notochord, hollow dorsal nerve, pharyngeal gill, slit, and a post-anal tail.
  • Vertebrates are animals having a vertebral column to support body, brain to control body and closed type circulatory system.
  • Animals with separate male and female individuals are unisexual whereas male and female reproductive organs in the same individual are bisexual animals.
  • The process of fusion of male and female gamete is called fertilization.
  • Internal fertilization takes place inside the female body whereas external fertilization takes place outside the body.
.

Very Short Questions

Bird Bat
  1. The body is covered with feathers.
  2. It lays eggs.
  1. The body is covered with hair.
  2. It gives birth to the young ones.

The four characteristics of Pisces are:-

  1. They have stream lined body to reduce water resistance.
  2. They breathe with the help of gills.
  3. They have different types of fins for locomotion.
  4. They reproduce sexually through external fertilization.

The diagnostic features of amphibian animals are:-

  1. They can survive both on land and in water.
  2. They have soft and moist skin.
  3. They use gills, skin and lungs for breathing.

The two characteristics for each of reptiles are:

  1. Their body is covered with dry scales.
  2. They have either no limbs or highly reduced limbs.

The two characteristics for each of aves are:

  1. Their body is covered with feathers.
  2. They have light bones that help in flying.

The two characteristics for each of mammals are:

  1. Their body is covered with more or less hair
  2. The young ones suckle the milk produced from the mammary glands of the female.

The two differences between bird and bat are:

Bird Bat
  1. The boy is covered with feathers.
  2. It lays eggs.
  1. The body is covered with hair.
  2. It gives birth to young one directly.

Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Chrodata
Sub-phylum - Vertebrata
Class- Pisces
Type - fish

Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Chrodata
Sub-phylum - Vertebrata
Class- Reptilia
Type - Wall Lizard*

Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Chrodata
Sub-phylum - Vertebrata
Class- Mammalia
Type - Cow*

Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Chrodata
Sub-phylum - Vertebrata
Class- Mammalia
Type - Whale

Following are the two differences cold-blooded animals and warm-blooded animals:

Cold–blooded animals Warm-blooded animals
  1. They can change their body temperature.
  2. Skin is either naked or covered with water proof scales. E.g. fish, frog, snake, etc.
  1. They cannot change their body temperature.
  2. Skin is covered with either hair or feathers. E.g. cow, birds, man, rabbit, etc.

Phylum chrodata is classified into four sub-phylum in animal kingdom. They are:-

  1. Hemichrodata
  2. Urochrodata
  3. Cephalochrodata
  4. Vertebrata

Animals which possess a backbone or vertebral column are called vertebrates. For example, human, bird, snake, pig, etc.

The three characteristics of phylum chordate in animal kingdom are:-

  1. Presence of notochord or chorda dorsalis.
  2. Presence of dorsal tubular nerve cord.
  3. Presence of pharyngeal slits.
  4. Presence of post-anal tail.

The animals having backbones or vertebral columns are called vertebrates. The general characteristics of vertebrates are as follows:
a. The vertebral column is the notochord which is more rigid and flexible rod, extending from the anterior to the posterior region of the body.
b. The vertebrates have vertebral column which supports the body.
c. Brain is enclosed in a cranium.

0%
  • The process of fusion of male and female gamete is ______.

    unisexual animals


    bisexual animals


    external fertilization


    fertilization


  • Those animals, which contain male and female reproductive organs in same individual is ______.

    homosexual Animals


    unisexual animals


    bisexual animals


    fertilization


  • Into how many sub-phyla is phylum chrodata is divided?

    4
    2
    6
    8
  • Which one of the following is invertebrate?

    Starfish
    Prawn
    Fish
    Seahorse
  • You scored /4


    Take test again

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report

Y all chordates are not vertibrates but all vertibrates r chordates.reasion plz


You must login to reply