Note on Urbanization and its Consequences

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According to the development and facilities, there are two types of areas. They are the rural area and urban area. Rural areas are the underdeveloped areas with fewer facilities whereas urban areas are the developed areas with all the facilities needed for citizens. In urban areas, there are good health system, education, transportation system etc. In underdeveloped or developing countries, there are more rural areas than urban areas but in developed countries, there are more urban areas than rural areas. The process of converting rural area to urban area by providing various facilities like of urban area is called urbanization. When facilities like education, transportation, health etc are provided to the rural area then it becomes semi-urban area as well as the urban area. To be the urban area, there should be the provision of facilities like education, health, transportation, pure drinking water, good employment opportunities, etc.

Source:urbangeographies.tumblr.com Fig: Urbanization
Source:urbangeographies.tumblr.com
Fig: Urbanization

The word Urbanization derived from the latin word 'Urbal' that means civilized society. Urbanization means modernization, industrialization, good social lifestyle, busy people etc. There is more population in urban areas than in rural areas because in urban areas there are better facilities and opportunities. There are mainly three factors in urbanization. They are urban behavior, structure, and demography. Urban behavior means a change in fashion or lifestyle of people living there. Urban structure means a change in economic structure or economic activities. In the urban area, people are involved in business and trade rather than in agriculture. Demography means the concentration of the people in a few localities or areas.

Talking about Nepal, though some of the cities are declared as the urban area, they lack proper facilities that an urban area should have. Though Kathmandu is a main urban area, there are no proper transportation facilities, no employment generation, less health and education facilities, no electricity, shortage of pure drinking water, pollution etc. Rural areas are in bad condition. Plans and policies that are made for converting the rural area into the urban area are not properly implemented. The works are not properly done. Some of the cities of Nepal are declared as the urban area but only by name not by facilities and environment. The rural area represents agriculture, traditional lifestyle, subsistence nature whereas urban area indicates modern lifestyle, trade, and business as economic activities, large markets, good transportation, education and health facilities, proper management of pure drinking water and waste, electricity, busy people etc.

Classification of Urban Areas

Urban areas are classified into the different area on the basis of population size, space, social and economic structure. According to the Municipality, Act 1992 and the local self- governance Act 1999 have categorized the existing municipalities as mahanagarpalika, upa- mahanagarpalika and nagarpalika. These are classified on the basis of population size, facilities, and annual revenue.

Source: www.nepalnews.com Fig: Municipality of Nepalgunj
Source: www.nepalnews.com
Fig: Municipality of Nepalgunj


To be in the list of upa- Mahanagarpa like, the area should have 1,00,00 minimum population with annual revenue at least Rs. 100 million with facilities of electricity, communication, pure drinking water etc. Similarly to be in the list of Mahanagarpalika, the area should have a minimum population size of 3,00,000 with annual revenue at least Rs. 400 million and all the facilities like proper communication, paved main and subsidiary roads, essential infrastructure for international sports events etc. In Nepal, there are 217 municipalities.

  • Municipality (Nagarpalika): To be in the list of Nagarpalika, the VDCs or area should have minimum population size 20, 00 in the Terai, 10,000 in the hill or mountain region. The annual revenue of the area should be about Rs. 5 million in the terai and 500,000in the hill or the mountain region. The VDCs should have the facilities like electricity, road, drinking water, communication and other similar urban facilities. At present in our country, there are 205 Municipalities.
Source: www.tendersontime.com Fig: Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office
Source: www.tendersontime.com
Fig: Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office
  • Sub- metropolitan (Upa- Mahanagarpalika): To be in the list of Mahanagarpalika, the area should have the minimum population size of 1,00,000. The annual revenue should be at least Rs. 100 million and it should already receive the status of a nagarpalika. Similarly taking about facilities, it should have facilities of electricity, drinking water, communication, paved roads, education and health services of a high standard. The area should have the general infrastructure for national and international sports events and provision of public parks and city hall.
  • Metropolitan (Mahanagarpalika): To be in the list of Mahanagarpalika, the area should have the minimum population size of 3,00,000. The annual revenue should be at least Rs. 400 million. It should have the facilities like proper facilities of electricity, drinking water, communication, paved main and subsidiary roads. There should be a good provision of health services, essential infrastructure for international sports events. The area should have at least one university with adequate opportunities for higher education in different fields. To be classified as Mahanagarpalika, the area should have already received the status of a Upa- mahanagarpalika.

The given table below shows the name list of Municipalities of Nepal, 2015 AD.

1.Kathmandu 45. Birtamod 89.Garuda 133.Bagchaur 178.Dapcha Kashikhanda
2.Pokhara 46.Siraha 90.Nilkantha 134.Besisahar 179.Dhulikhel
3.Lalitpur 47.Mechinagar 91.Dodhara Chandani 135.Ramgram 180.Saptakoshi
4.Birganj 48.Gulariya 92.Bajrabarahi 136.Melamchi 181.Hanumannagar Joginimai
5.Biratnagar 49.Tikapur 93.Mahagadimai 137.Inaruwa 182.Api
6.Bharatpur 50.Kawasoti 94.Kalika 138.Godawari 183.Sundarbazar
7.Janakpur 51.Khairahani 95.Dhankuta 139.Resunga 184.Krishnanagar
8.Hetauda 52.Bansgadhi 96.Pyuthan 140.Manthali 185.Jayaprithvi
9.Nepalgunj 53.Gaidakot 97.Shuklagandaki 141.Ramdhuni- Bhasi 186.Buddhabatika
10.Itahari 54.Belauri 98.Rajbiraj 142.Rangeli 187.Patan
11.Dharan 55.Rajapur 99.Bhajani-Trishakti 143.Beni 188.Myanglung
12.Butwal 56.Bhadrapur 100.Karyabinayak 144.Panauti 189.Ilam
13.Dhangadhi 57.Shivaraj 101.Anantalingeshwar 145.Madhyabindu 190.Taplejung
14.Budhanilkantha 58.Barahathwa 102.Madhi 146.Katari 191.Chandannath
15.Gokarneshwar 59.Pathari Sanischare 103.Bardibas 147.Bidur 192.Rainas
16.Bhimdatta 60.Bedkot 104.Sukhipur 148.Babai 193.Musikot
17.Tilottama 61.Golbazar 105.Krishnapur 149.Pokhariya 194.Bhanu
18.Tokha 62.Kanchanrup 106.Rampur 150.Suryodaya 195.Sanphebagar
19.Birendranagar 63.Koshi Haraicha 107.Gaur 151.Khandbari 196.Badimalika
20.Kalaiya 64.Byas 108.Nijgadh 152.Dipayal-Silgadhi 197.Bhirkot
21.Tulsipur 65.Dhangadimai 109.Urlabari 153.Sanoshri Taratal 198.Pakhribas
22.Chandagiri 66.Gauradaha 110.Parashuram 154.Bhrikuti 199.Diktel
23.Madhyapur Thimi 67.Rapti 111.Chitrawan 155.Duhabi- Bhaluwa 200.Dasharathchand
24.Bhaktapur 68.Mirchaiya 112.Ganeshman Charanath 156.Shankharapur 201.Laliguras
25.Gadhimai 69.Sainamina 113.Bardaghat 157.Dudhauli 202.Siddhicharan
26.Tarakeshwar 70.Shani- Arjun 114.Lamani 158.Sabaila 203.Anbu kharireni
27.Lahan 71.Dhanusha 115.Panchkal 159.Banepa 204.Bhjpur
28.Damak 72.Jaleshwar 116.Sharada 160.Phidim 205.Kamalbazar
29.Banganga 73.Punarwas 117.Bherimalika 161.Chainpur 206.Chautara
30.Attariya 74.Kapilvastu 118.Sundar Dulari 162.Simraughad 207.Bandipur
31.Lumbini 75.Chireshwarnath 119.Changunarayan 163.Shubhaghat- Gangamala 208.Chaurjahari
32.Chandrapur 76.Devdaha 120.Bheriganga 164.Dakshinkali 209.Madi
33.Triyuga 77.Hariwan 121.Kusma 165.Waling 210.Jiri
34.Ratnanagar 78.Jhalari Pipaladi 122.Gaushala 166.Beltar- Basaha 211.Liwang
35.Lekhnath 79.Tripur 123.Belbari 167.Letang Bhogateni 212.Shadanand
36.Nagarjun 80.Kamalamai 124.Mithila 168.Kolhabi 213.Chapakot
37.Kirtipur 81.Gorkha 125.Devchuli 169.Palumtar 214.Ramechhap
38.Ghorahi 82.Ishwarpur 126.Putlibazar 170.Bhimeshwar 215.Dudhkunda
39.Siddharthanagar 83.Suryabinayak 127.Tansen 171.Mangalsen 216.Deumai
40.Kohalpur 84.Sandhikharke 128.Lalbandi 172.Nagarkot 217.Madhyanepal
41.Mahalakshmi 85.Kankai 129.Baglung 173.Amaragadhi Karaputar
42.Lamki Chuha 86.Narayani 130.Dullu 174.Narayan
43.Ghodaghodi 87.Sunwal 131.Malangwa 175.Beldandi
44.Kageshwor 88.Shivasatakshi 132.Shambhunath 176.Thaha

  • The process of converting rural areas into urban areas by providing various facilities like of urban area is known as urbanization.
  • The word Urbanization derived from the latin word 'Urbal' that means civilized society. 
  • Urban areas are classified into the different area on the basis of population size, space, and social and economic structure.
  • Different types of urban areas are Municipality, Sub- metropolitan and Metropolitan.
  • The minimum population size of Sub- metropolitan should be about 1,00,000.
  • The annual revenue of Metropolitan should be atleast Rs. 400 million.
.

Very Short Questions

Urbanization can be defined as the growth in the proportion of total population in the urban places . In simple word, it is the process of development of urban areas and concentration of population in thoseurban areas.

Mahanagarpalika is a municipality with a minimum population size of 3,00,000 annual revenue of a least Rs.400 million , facilities of electricity , drinking water , communication paved main and subsidiary roads , provision of specialized health services etc.

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  • The process of converting rural area into urban area is known as

    Industrialization
    Modernization
    Traditionalization
    Urbanization
  • The literal meaning of Urbal is a

    Good society
    Civilized Society
    Criminal Society
    Uncivilized Society
  • What should be the minimum population size in the Terai Region to be in the list of Municipality?

    3,00,000
    1,00,000
    20000
    50000
  • What should be the minimum population size to be in the list of Sub- metropolitan?

    50000
    1,50,000
    1,00,000
    2,00,000
  • What should be the annual revenue of particular area to be in the list of Metropolitan?

    Rs.450 million
    Rs.300 million
    Rs.400 million
    Rs.500 million
  • What should be the annual revenue of particular area to be in the list of Sub- metropolitan?

    Rs.500 million
    Rs.150 million
    Rs.100 million
    Rs.450 million
  • What should be the total population of particular area to be in the list of Metropolitan?

    4,00,000
    5,00,000
    3,00,000
    2,50,000
  • What should be the total revenue in Terai region to be in the list of Municipality?

    Rs. 4 milliion
    Rs.5 million
    Rs. 3 million
    Rs.2 million
  • Which one of the following is not the facilities that is required for urbanization?

    Transportation system
    Communication services
    Health facilities
    Social evil
  • Which one of the following is the facilities that is required for urbanization?

    Lack of Health services
    High criminal activities
    Lack of Schools, College etc
    Good acess of road
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