## Note on Population Composition: Age, Mother tongue, Educational Status, Occupation

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#### Population Composition by Age

Population classified on the basis of age is called population composition by ages. There are different people of different age. Some are a child, some are young, some are adults and some are old. These people of different age as a whole make a community or the population. The population of age group between 15 years to 59 years is known as economically active population and the population of age below 15 and above 60 years are considered as economically inactive or dependent population. The government can make the plan for adult, child and old people by knowing the composition of the population by age. The data about population composition by age are organized by 5 year age groups as it is very difficult to record and study about single age group. The given table shows the population composition by age and sex in 2011 AD,

 Age Group(in years) Population Percent Distribution Male Female Total 00-04 10.23 9.18 9.69 05-09 12.73 11.50 12.10 10-14 13.73 12.54 13.12 15-19 11.23 10.91 11.07 20-24 8.13 9.63 8.90 25-29 7.14 8.52 7.85 30-34 6.00 7.07 6.55 35-39 5.76 6.33 6.06 40-44 5.14 5.32 5.23 45-49 4.48 4.38 4.43 50-54 3.94 3.66 3.80 55-59 3.21 2.97 3.09 60-64 2.87 2.85 2.86 65-69 2.16 2.03 2.09 70-74 1.55 1.43 1.49 75-79 0.91 0.86 0.89 80-84 0.49 0.48 0.49 85-89 0.20 0.20 0.20 90-94 0.07 0.08 0.08 95 and above 0.03 0.05 0.04

From the given table we can conclude that the population of age group 10- 14 has the highest percentage of the population with male 13.73 and female 12.54. The age group with the lowest population is 95 and age above it. The second age group with the highest population is of age group between 5- 9 years. Similarly, the population composition by age can also be analyzed with the help of broad age group. It helps to know about dependent and independent population. The given table below shows the population composition of Nepal by broad age groups,

 Census Year(in AD) Population composition by broad age group 0-14 15-59 60 and above 2001 39.31 54.2 6.5 2011 34.91 56.96 8.13

The above table shows that the population of age group 0- 14 is decreasing from 2001 to 2011 whereas the independent age group 15- 59 is increasing from 2001 to 2011 AD. The population of a country is said to be young population if the young age population(0-14 age group) shares more than 35% of the total population and if old age population shares more than 10% of the total population, it is called aging population. Talking about Nepal, Nepal has a young population.

#### Population Composition by Mother Tongue

As we know that there are various caste and ethnic group in Nepal. People of Nepal represent various caste. They have their own language and dialects. People of different area speak a different language. Some of the examples of different mother tongue are Rai, Maithili, Magar, Urdu, Gurung, Newar etc. The population is classified on the basis of language spoken by the people is known as population composition by language. Nepal has been recording the percentage of population composition by various languages since 1971 AD. Twenty different languages were recorded in 1971 AD census. On 2011 AD census, 123 different languages were recorded.
On 2011 AD a large number of language were recorded because people became aware of their own culture and tradition. They respect their language and speak their language for the protection and preservation of their culture and tradition. Their culture and tradition are their identities.

 Mother tongue/ Language Population (in percent) 1991 2001 2011 Nepali 50.31 48.61 44.6 Maithili 11.85 12.30 11.7 Bhojpuri 7.46 7.53 6.0 Tharu 5.37 5.86 5.8 Tamang 4.89 5.19 5.1 Newar 3.73 3.63 3.2 Abadhi 2.03 2.47 1.9 Urdu 1.09 0.77 2.6 Magar 2.33 3.39 3.0 Gurung 1.23 1.49 1.23 Limbu 1.37 1.47 1.3 Sherpa 0.66 0.57 0.45 Santhal 0.04 0.18 0.19 Sunuwar -- 0.12 -- Danuwar 0.13 0.14 0.18 Thakali 0.04 0.03 0.02 Bajjika -- 1.05 2.99 Doteli -- -- 2.97 Baitadeli -- -- 1.03 Others 7.47 5.2 5.74

The given table shows that Nepali is the most spoken language as mother tongue in all three census. Maithili is the second language spoken by the people.

#### Population composition by Educational Status

Education is the key to all success. Education helps us to distinguish between wrong and right things. In today's world, education has become very important for the social and economic development of the country. It is an important indicator of development. In the context of Nepal, not all people are educated. Few of them are still uneducated especially female. They are not allowed to go the school. The literacy rate of male is more than the literacy rate of female. In developed countries, most or all of the people are educated but in underdeveloped or developing countries only half of the population are education with less female. The population composition of Nepal by educational status in 1991, 2001 and 2011 AD census is given below in the table,

 Sex Literacy rate of population 6 years and above 1991 2001 2011 Male 54.5 65.5 76.0 Female 25.0 42.8 57.8 Total 39.6 54.1 66.6

The above table shows the literacy rate of the population of Nepal above 6 years. The literacy rate in 1991 is found to be 39.6% with 54.5% male and 25% female. Here, males are given more priority than female in terms of education. The population of the male is double than the population of female. Similarly, the literacy rate of the population above 6 years is 54.1% with male 65.5% and female 42.8%. In 2011 AD, the literacy rate is found to be increased to 66.6% with male 76% and female 57.8%. In all this data, it is found that women are discriminated and are given less priority for education. This shows that still now also there is gender discrimination and women are not allowed to go to the school by their family.

#### Population Composition by Occupation

There are two types of population, dependent and independent population. Independent population is engaged in different economic activities. The government also record the population on the basis of people engaged in economic activities or different occupation. The data of population composition by occupation is very important because it shows the economic status of the country. It helps the government to prepare plan and policies for economic development. It tells about the employment generation. It provides information about the condition of agriculture, industries, and trade. The given table below shows the data of population composition by the occupation of Nepal in 1991, 2001 and 2011 AD census.

 Occupation 1991 2001 2011 Agriculture 80.3 65.7 60.43 Service 6.1 9.3 8.29 Trade 3 7.9 8.07 Production 4.2 1.4 2.22 Technical 1.8 1.4 2.09 Others 4.6 11.5 19.03

The above people shows that majority of the people are engaged in agriculture in all three census. The percentage of the total population of people engaged in agriculture has decreased from 80.35 to 60.43% in 2011 AD. The percentage of the total population involved in the technical field has increased from 1.8 & to 2.09%. Nepal being the underdeveloped country is that because only 2.09% of people are engaged in a technical field which is a very important factor for development.

• The population of age group between 15 years to 59 years is known as economically active population and the population of age below 15 and above 60 years are considered as economically inactive or dependent population.
• There are two types of population, broad-based pyramid, and narrow-based pyramid.
• The majority of people of Nepal speak the Nepali language.
• The literacy rate of population in 2011 AD is 66.6%.
• The majority of the people of Nepal are engaged in agriculture.
• Only 2.09% of the total population are engaged in the technical field.

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### Very Short Questions

Population classified on the basis of age is called population composition by age. There are different people of different age. Some are child, some are young, some are adult and some are old. These people of different age as a whole make a community or the population.

There are two types of population, dependent and independent population. Independent population is engaged in different economic activities. The government also record the population on the basis of people engaged in economic activities or different occupation. The data of population composition by occupation is very important because it shows the economic status of the country. It helps the government to prepare plan and policies for economic development. It tells about the employment generation.

0%

7 years
5 years
2years
6 years

11%
7.12%
9.12%
8.12%

11%
8.63%
9.63%
7.63%

8%
10%
7%
9%

55%
58%
60%
57%

Maithili
English
Gurung
Nepali

5.77%
7.77%
6.77%
4.77%

1.3%
1.1%
1.0%
1.2%

84%
82%
83%
81%

69%
66%
71%
67%