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Note on Some Useful Alkane

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1. Methane:

Molecular formula: CH4

Structural formula:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Methane-2D-square.png

Occurrence:

It is found in swamps and marshy lands where it is produced by bacterial decomposition of complex vegetables and animal matters. It is also found in coalmines.

Uses:

  1. It is used as a gaseous fuel in industries and household works since it produces a large amount of heat on burning.

http://i.imgur.com/QvkFilH.jpg

2.It is used in the manufacture of water gas (CO+H2) and hydrogen.

3.It is used for making 'carbon black' needed for paints and in rubber industries.

http://web.tradekorea.com/upload_file2/sell/02/S00053802/High_conductive_carbon_black_Acetylene_carbon_black.jpg

4.It is used for making printing ink.

5.It is used in the form of LPG in domestic use.

2. Ethane

Molecular formula: C2H6

Structural formula:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Ethane-flat.png

Condensed formula: CH3CH3

Occurrence:

It occurs with methane in natural gas, coal gas, etc. It is also found in petroleum mines. It is slightly heavier than methane because its molecular weight is more than that of methane.

Uses:

  1. It is used as gaseous fuel along with methane.
  2. It is used for making other organic compounds.

3. Propane

Molecular formula: C3H8

Structural formula:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Propane-2D-flat.png

Condensed formula: CH3- CH2 - CH3

Occurrence:

It is found in oil refinery gas, natural gas and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

http://i.imgur.com/I3YPwBH.jpg

Uses:

  1. It is used as fuel and a refrigerant.

    http://www.sparkbangbuzz.com/els/refrig3.gif

  2. It is used to make other type of compounds.

4. Butane

Molecular formula: C4 H10

Structural formula:

http://www.gcsescience.com/Butane1.gif

Condensed formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

Occurrence:

It occurs as natural gas and is found in petroleum mines.

Uses:

  1. It is used as fuel.
  2. It is also used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber.

    http://images.forbes.com/media/2006/11/08/science_inventions_1.jpg

  • Methane is found in swamps and marshy lands where it is produced by bacterial decomposition of complex vegetables and animal matters. It is also found in coalmines. 
  • Methane is used for manufacturing of water gas and hydrogen, making carbon black which is needed for paint and in rubber industry, making printing ink, and use in a form of LPG in domestic use, etc.
  • The molecular formula of ethane is C2H6.
  • Ethane occurs with methane in natural gas, coal gas, etc. It is also found in petroleum mines. It is slightly heavier than methane because its molecular weight is more than that of methane. It is use as gaseous fuel with methene, use for making other organic compounds,
  • The molecular formula of propane is C3H6.
  • Propane is found in oil refinery gas, natural gas and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). It is used as fuel and refrigerant and make other type of compounds.
  • The molecular formula of butane is C4H10.
  • Butane occurs as natural gas and is found in petroleum mines. It is used as fuel and also used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. It is used as fuel and also used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber.
.

Very Short Questions

The uses of methane are as follows:

  1. Methane is an excellent fuel for domestic cooking.
  2. Methane is used for preparing carbon black needed as filler in rubber industry and in making paints and printer's ink.
  3. Methane is used in the preparation of a variety of organic compound like methyl chloride, chloroform, methyl alcohol, formaldehyde, etc.
  4. It is a cheap source of commercial hydrogen.

Methane. Methane is the simplest alkane, consisting of a single carbon atom surrounded by 4 hydrogen atoms, giving it a chemical formula of CH4. It has a molecular mass of 16 and because of this low molecular mass, it exists as a gas at room temperature.

The prefix hep- means it has seven carbon atoms in the longest chain, and as heptane is a linear alkane (all the carbons in one chain, not branched off), so it must have 7 carbon atoms. The suffix, -ane, indicates that it is an alkane.

Complete combustion is where there are sufficient levels of oxygen present. Combustion of any hydrocarbon will produce carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion is where not enough oxygen is present, forming carbon monoxide and water, or if there is a large lack of oxygen, carbon and water.

The first four alkanes are all gases (methane, ethane, propane and butane) at room temperature. The (straight chain) alkanes with a number of carbon atoms between 5 and 16 are liquids and solids begin to appear at C17H36. The trend in boiling points is because there is very little polarity in alkanes, so the only force holding the atoms together is Van de Waals forces which are very weak. The more points of contact, the more Van de Waals forces present in a molecule. This is why as a molecule gets larger, (hence more points of contact), it needs a higher temperature to reach its boiling point.

 

Molecular formula of methane: CH4

 

Structural formula of methane:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Methane-2D-square.png

 

 

 

 

Molecular formula of ethane: C2H6

Structural formula of ethane:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Ethane-flat.png

 

The two uses of ethane are:

  1. Ethane is used as a source of heat.
  2. It is used as a cooling agent.

0%
  • Symbolic function of carbooxylic group is ______.

    OH


    CO


    COOH


    CHO


  • The molecular formula of methane is ______

    CH3


    CH2


    CH4


    CH


  • Methane is found in ______.

    coal mines


    natural gas


    petroleum mines


    refinery gas


  • ______ used in the manufacture of water gas(CO+H2).

    Propane


    Butane


    Methane


    Ethane


  • C2H6 is molecular formula of _______.

    propane


    butane


    methane


    ethane


  • The molecular formula of propane is ______.

    C3H8


    CH2


    CH3


    C2H8


  • The condensed formula of propane is ______.

    CH3- CH2


    CH3- CH2 - CH


    CH3- CH2 - CH3


    CH3- CH


  • The molecular formula of butane is ______.

    C3H8
    C4H10
    C4H8
    C3H10
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