Reducing the rate of population growth and making plans for attraction and distractions in migration come under population control. The control of population growth is necessary to promote development activities for the welfare of the people.
The following are some of the measures to control population growth.
The measures which help to bear children after some year's gap are called temporary methods. It can increase the gap between first and second children. The female and male can adopt different temporary methods, they are:
It is one of the contraceptives devices for female which is taken orally. It is known by Nilocon or Gulab in our market. It makes hormonal changes in the ovary and stops the ovulation so that secretion of ova is not possible. But it has to be taken regularly.
It is called kamal tablet in Nepali. It is pushed into cervix about ten to fifteens before sexual intercourse. It can melt and from the coat of form which prevents sperm from entering the womb.
Femidom ( female condom)
It is a condom for women. It is made up of thin polyurethane or transparent rubber. It is used in the vagina so that sperm does not enter. It is a strong, transparent health which lines the vagina to create a barrier against sperm. It prevents sexually transmitted diseases also.
The chemical substance can be used in another way of instead of foam tablet. These are cream paste, jelly, and aerosol. It is used in the vagina before sexual intercourse. It kills the sperm entering into the cervix. It is very costly. It is not available in Nepal.
The permanent method of family planning provides permanent solutions to the pregnancy and birth. A permanent method for male is vasectomy and for a female is minilap and laparoscopy.
It is also called male sterilization. It is permanent surgical operation for a male in which the doctor makes a small opening in man's scrotum and closes the both tubes that carry sperms from the testes. This gives permanent solution to conception.
It is a permanent method of female contraception. It should be after forty-five days of delivery or within the eight days of menstruation.
It is a minor operation done on women who no longer has any wish for more children. It is done by a small surgery in the lower part of abdomen. The fallopian tubes are cut and tied up. This operation can be done if she is practicing other contraceptives devices.
Laparoscopy is also one of the permanent measures of contraception. It involves a surgical operation as a sterilization in which the doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen just below the naval and finds two fallopian tubes with the help of laparoscope. After that every fallopian tube is closed with a clip or a ring. This should be done after thirty or forty days of the delivery or within five to eight days of the menstruation.
The term 'population management' denotes the proper distribution of population according to the availability of natural resources. Unbalanced between the population size and natural resources have created problems. Since the nature of the population is dynamic, population situation should be considered while planning and supplying necessary needs and resources. Scarcity and problems are created if population is increased beyond carrying capacity of available resources. It is not only controlling the untimely increasing population growth but also the increase in population when human resources lack to mobilize available natural resources. So, the control of population growth is included in population management. Similarly, to increase population in those areas where there is sufficient manpower to mobilize the natural resources is also included in population management.
The process of reducing the growth of population manually and making plans to regulate migration in controlled way is termed as population control. The measures to control population are given below:
The provision of equal rights and opportunities for both sexes male and female is called gender equality. Male and female should be equally treated. In other words, the equal treatment and attitude towards the male and female are called gender equality. The community cannot get progress, if male and female are discriminated. The preference is highly given to on male person in our society. Couple waits for bearing the son even they already have number of daughters. They won't be satisfied by having only daughters. There is evidence that daughters are sent to government school while sons are sent to private boarding school. So, if there is gender equality then the population could be controlled to some limit.
Maintaining happiness in the family with the proper use and mobilization of income and other resources is called family management. It includes various works a such as management of income sources, mobilization of the resources, birth of the required number of children, education of children etc. the major problem of planning of a family is the growth of population.
Calender method is also called 'Rhythm method'. In this method, sexual intercourse is undertaken within the safe period only. The method works only to those women with a regular menstruation cycle.
Menstruation cycle is the key factor in this method. If a woman's menstruation cycle is of 28 days, the release of ovum will be on 14th day, so if sexual intercourse is undertaken within that period of time, there is a strong chance of getting pregnant. In this method, unsafe period should be avoided to prevent pregnancy.
Cervical mucus methodis also known as mucus testing method. Women secret two types of cervical mucus in the period of menstruation cycle first one is thick, slippery and wet which is discharged during the unsafe period i.e. 10 to 19 days of menstruation. If the sexual intercourse takes place during this time, women can be pregnant. Couple avoids the sexual intercourse to prevent conception if sticky and pasty type of mucus is discharged in vagina. During this period ovum neither is not released. In other to find the types of mucus, women should wash her properly and push in to the vagina to bring the mucus out. She can test the thickness of mucus by keeping it in between forefinger and the thumb.
It is also known as coital interrupts method. In this method, sexual intercourse is done without using any other means but precautious ejection is made outside by pulling the penis from the vagina. It is about 80% effective, this methods does not use any means and resources. It also does not need trained person. But this method is not possible if male loses patients and woman protests.
Condom is an effective device used by male to prevent conception. It prevents sperm from entering in to cervix and prevents pregnancy. It is made up of thin smooth and elastic latex rubber. The merits of condom are given below:
The advantages of pills are:
It is a permanent surgical operation for female to sterilize. In minilap, after making small incision just above the pubic hair, each fallopian tube is tied and cut or else closed with clip of ring. Incision is closed with stitches and covered with adhesive bandages. This sterilization should be performed after 45 days (or 6 weeks of delivery) or within 7 days after menstruation. If the couple is using other contraception, it can be done at any time.
The merits of minilap are: