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Note on Measures of Population Management

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Reducing the rate of population growth and making plans for attraction and distractions in migration come under population control. The control of population growth is necessary to promote development activities for the welfare of the people.

The following are some of the measures to control population growth.

  1. Birth spacing: Birth spacing is the duration of time between the births of two children. Normally, the birth spacing of four to five years is useful or healthier for the both mother and child. There should be a gap between the two children and the decision for the gap should be taken unanimously by both husband and wife. This process of maintaining a gap between two children slows does the rate of birth by controlling frequent birth and ultimately helps in the control of population growth.
  2. Marriage at appropriate age: In Nepal, the marriageable age for boys is twenty-five years and girls are twenty years. But in most of the families, boys and girls marriage before the marriageable age. Marriage at appropriate age means getting quality of life, prosperous and happy family.
  3. The condition of Woman and Education: Woman has occupied more than half of the total population of Nepal. But the women in Nepal are lagging behind in terms of educational status, political opportunities and the use of health facilities and services. The literacy rate of Nepalese women is comparatively lower than that of man. The status of women cannot be changed and uplifted by law and rules only without providing them, educational opportunities and uplifting their educational status. Thus, education is the powerful thing that plays a vital role in women empowerment and personality development. If they are educated then they can understand the role of women in family planning, making a decision, and reproductive rights, social and political activities. This makes a positive influence on the control of population growth.
  4. Females status upgrading: The women are mostly illiterate and are considered inferior to males in our Hindu society. To carry the family and to determine number of family, women's attitude is also to be upgraded. The women can also play a vital role in the determination of family number. The women will not allow the male to have polygamy. If women status is upgraded, it may help control the population.
  5. Measures of contraception: There are various methods of controlling birth. One of them is adopting the methods of contraception and use of contraceptive devices which prevent the meeting of sperms and ovum for fertilization through the use of artificial methods and devices can be divided into two categories that are given below:

Temporary Methods

The measures which help to bear children after some year's gap are called temporary methods. It can increase the gap between first and second children. The female and male can adopt different temporary methods, they are:

Pills

It is one of the contraceptives devices for female which is taken orally. It is known by Nilocon or Gulab in our market. It makes hormonal changes in the ovary and stops the ovulation so that secretion of ova is not possible. But it has to be taken regularly.

Merits

  1. If it is taken regularly, it is highly effective.
  2. It helps to regularize menstruation.
  3. It does not give any trouble in sexual intercourse.

Demerits

  1. It is not effective if it is not taken regularly.
  2. It may cause headache and dizziness to some women.
  3. It is not useful to women having heart, liver and kidney problem as well as cancer.
  4. Consolation with a doctor is absolutely essential before its use.

Foam tablet

It is called kamal tablet in Nepali. It is pushed into cervix about ten to fifteens before sexual intercourse. It can melt and from the coat of form which prevents sperm from entering the womb.

Characteristics:

  1. It is easy and inexpensive.
  2. It is an effective device and has no negative effect.
  3. It is useful for those who have vaginal dryness.

Drawbacks:

  1. It is uneasy because it should be kept in the cervix before every sexual intercourse.
  2. The users should wait for ten to fifteen minutes for intercourse after keeping foam tablet in the cervix, which is not always practical. So, females find it boring.

Femidom ( female condom)

It is a condom for women. It is made up of thin polyurethane or transparent rubber. It is used in the vagina so that sperm does not enter. It is a strong, transparent health which lines the vagina to create a barrier against sperm. It prevents sexually transmitted diseases also.

Merits

  1. It can be used by women of all ages.
  2. Attractive with vaginal dryness can also be use it to increase lubrication and reduce painful intercourse.

Demerits

  1. It is the single use disposal device.
  2. It is an expensive device.
  3. It should be used with the male condom.

Vaginal cream

The chemical substance can be used in another way of instead of foam tablet. These are cream paste, jelly, and aerosol. It is used in the vagina before sexual intercourse. It kills the sperm entering into the cervix. It is very costly. It is not available in Nepal.

Permanent Measures

The permanent method of family planning provides permanent solutions to the pregnancy and birth. A permanent method for male is vasectomy and for a female is minilap and laparoscopy.

Vasectomy

It is also called male sterilization. It is permanent surgical operation for a male in which the doctor makes a small opening in man's scrotum and closes the both tubes that carry sperms from the testes. This gives permanent solution to conception.

Merits

  1. This does not make differences in good health and sex satisfactions.
  2. It can be performed by minor surgery.
  3. There are no tensions of other contraceptives and increase interest sexual pleasure.

Demerits

  1. It is not effective immediately. A sterilized man needs condoms for consecutive twenty ejaculations.
  2. It requires a surgical process.
  3. There may be a chance of reversal surgery

Minilap

It is a permanent method of female contraception. It should be after forty-five days of delivery or within the eight days of menstruation.

It is a minor operation done on women who no longer has any wish for more children. It is done by a small surgery in the lower part of abdomen. The fallopian tubes are cut and tied up. This operation can be done if she is practicing other contraceptives devices.

Characteristics

  1. It is permanent method.
  2. It does not have any effect on health satisfaction of sex.

Demerits

  1. It is useful for only those who do not wish to have any more children

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is also one of the permanent measures of contraception. It involves a surgical operation as a sterilization in which the doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen just below the naval and finds two fallopian tubes with the help of laparoscope. After that every fallopian tube is closed with a clip or a ring. This should be done after thirty or forty days of the delivery or within five to eight days of the menstruation.

Merits

  1. It is permanent method with the effectiveness of 99. 5%.
  2. This has no adverse affect on health and sex relationship between husband and wife.

Demerit

  1. It is only suitable for the women who do not have any desire for any more children.
  2. It requires a surgical procedure.

  • Measures of population management are birth spacing, marriage at proper age, condition of women and education, female status upgrading and measures of contraception.
  • Pills, form tablets, vaginal cream, and femindom are temporary family planning methods.
  • Vasectomy, minilap and laparoscopy are permanent family planning.
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Very Short Questions

The term 'population management' denotes the proper distribution of population according to the availability of natural resources. Unbalanced between the population size and natural resources have created problems. Since the nature of the population is dynamic, population situation should be considered while planning and supplying necessary needs and resources. Scarcity and problems are created if population is increased beyond carrying capacity of available resources. It is not only controlling the untimely increasing population growth but also the increase in population when human resources lack to mobilize available natural resources. So, the control of population growth is included in population management. Similarly, to increase population in those areas where there is sufficient manpower to mobilize the natural resources is also included in population management.

The process of reducing the growth of population manually and making plans to regulate migration in controlled way is termed as population control. The measures to control population are given below:

  • Birth spacing
  • Age at marriage (delayed marriage)
  • Gender equality
  • Uplifting the status of female
  • First conception at age
  • Contraceptive methods

The provision of equal rights and opportunities for both sexes male and female is called gender equality. Male and female should be equally treated. In other words, the equal treatment and attitude towards the male and female are called gender equality. The community cannot get progress, if male and female are discriminated. The preference is highly given to on male person in our society. Couple waits for bearing the son even they already have number of daughters. They won't be satisfied by having only daughters. There is evidence that daughters are sent to government school while sons are sent to private boarding school. So, if there is gender equality then the population could be controlled to some limit.

Maintaining happiness in the family with the proper use and mobilization of income and other resources is called family management. It includes various works a such as management of income sources, mobilization of the resources, birth of the required number of children, education of children etc. the major problem of planning of a family is the growth of population.

Calender method is also called 'Rhythm method'. In this method, sexual intercourse is undertaken within the safe period only. The method works only to those women with a regular menstruation cycle.
Menstruation cycle is the key factor in this method. If a woman's menstruation cycle is of 28 days, the release of ovum will be on 14th day, so if sexual intercourse is undertaken within that period of time, there is a strong chance of getting pregnant. In this method, unsafe period should be avoided to prevent pregnancy.

Cervical mucus methodis also known as mucus testing method. Women secret two types of cervical mucus in the period of menstruation cycle first one is thick, slippery and wet which is discharged during the unsafe period i.e. 10 to 19 days of menstruation. If the sexual intercourse takes place during this time, women can be pregnant. Couple avoids the sexual intercourse to prevent conception if sticky and pasty type of mucus is discharged in vagina. During this period ovum neither is not released. In other to find the types of mucus, women should wash her properly and push in to the vagina to bring the mucus out. She can test the thickness of mucus by keeping it in between forefinger and the thumb.

It is also known as coital interrupts method. In this method, sexual intercourse is done without using any other means but precautious ejection is made outside by pulling the penis from the vagina. It is about 80% effective, this methods does not use any means and resources. It also does not need trained person. But this method is not possible if male loses patients and woman protests.

Condom is an effective device used by male to prevent conception. It prevents sperm from entering in to cervix and prevents pregnancy. It is made up of thin smooth and elastic latex rubber. The merits of condom are given below:

  • It is easy to use and less inexpensive.
  • It is 95% effective.
  • It also prevents STDs
  • It is easy available and personally used.
Demerits of condom are:
  • It must be replaced for every new intercourse.
  • It is ineffective if torn once.
  • Condom brings allergy for some people.
  • People feel reduction in sensation using this.

The advantages of pills are:

  • It is 99% effective, if taken regularly.
  • It helps regulating menstruation.
  • It does not make any trouble in sexual intercourse.
And the disadvantages of pills are:
  • It is not taken regularly, it is not effective.
  • Some women get vertigo and headache.
  • It is not suitable for breast feeding women.
  • It does not prevent from STDs.

It is a permanent surgical operation for female to sterilize. In minilap, after making small incision just above the pubic hair, each fallopian tube is tied and cut or else closed with clip of ring. Incision is closed with stitches and covered with adhesive bandages. This sterilization should be performed after 45 days (or 6 weeks of delivery) or within 7 days after menstruation. If the couple is using other contraception, it can be done at any time.

The merits of minilap are:

  • It is very effective about 99.5%
  • It is permanent method.
  • Using this there is no fear of pregnancy.
  • There is no adverse effect on health and sexual pleasure.
The demerits of minilap are:
  • It is only suitable for women with no desire for additional children.
  • It needs surgical procedure.
  • Sometime it is found to be unsuccessful.

0%
  • The measures which help to bear children after some year's gap are called ______.

    tedious method
    long-term method
    permanent method
    temporary method
  • __________ is known by Nilocon or Gulab in our market.

    Laparoscopy
    Minilap
    Pills
    Vasectomy
  • Which one of following is not the permanent measures of contraception?

    Laparoscopy
    Pills
    Minilap
    Vasectomy
  • How much is the effectiveness of Laparoscopy?

    66. 5%
    99. 5%
    88. 5%
    89. 5%
  • Which one of the following is called kamal tablet in Nepali?

    Pills
    condom
    Foam tablet
    Minilap
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akshay kumar

i need more notes on those topics


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shakira MAGAR

Thanks for given answered


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The impact of appropriate age at marriage on population management


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