We can compare the computer system (Hardware and software) with human and human intelligence respectively. All the activities of human body like running eating, speaking are based on the thoughts and feeling raised by the brain. All these actions are initiated and controlled with our brain. If brain doesn't raise such feeling and control, we will be idle and cannot do anything. similarly computer system (Hardware) is also initiated and controlled with set of programs called software. Programs are the collections of data and instructions in a systematic order to perform some work. These programs are organized and collected in a systematic order to tell the computer what to do and how to do. for example software instruct the hardware what to display on the users screen, what kinds of input to take from the user, and kinds of output to generate.
A set of program, which are specially written to provide the user a precise functioning like solving a specific problems is termed as a software package. for example word processor package helps to create the documents, save document, modify and print the documents. "Software is the collection of program and other associated documents that helps to control, manage and integrate the components of computer system to accomplish a specific task."
In broad sense we can classify the software into two types:
The software that helps to activate the computer system and provide operating environment for other application software is called system software. It's primary work is to control, integrate and manage the individual hardware components of computer system. This software provides an operating and programming environment where programmer and user can create and the application software for their day to day application. It can be explained into three types:
According to the nature and application processing we have three types of language translators.
Compilers: Translator systems that compile whole program and translate it into machine code at a time are compilers. This translator translate whole program at a time and creates object code then executive code. E.g.C Program, Pascal etc.
Interpreters: A translator that can convert the source code (Program code) in line manners without looking at entire program at a time. It translate each statements or lines at a time and translate another line. E.g. Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC).
Assemblers: It is a translator that can convert assembly level language into machine code. It is also called source program.
Software is the collection of programs that makes computer work. In another word, it is the set of programs that operates and control hardware and performs specific task. Types of software are:
i. System software
ii. Application software
System software is the set of programs that are designed to control the operations of a computer system. They are:
i. System management software
ii. System development software.
Application software is the complete self-contained program that performs a specific function directly to the computer. Types of application software are:
Utility software is a small helper programs that perform the task related to the maintenance of computer hardware and software. E.g. Norton disk Doctor, defragmenteretc.
The program which translates the program written in any programming language to machine level language is known as language processor or translator, e.g. compiler, interpreter, assembler etc.
|1. It converts the statement of high
level language at once.
|1. It converts the statement of high level
language line by line.
|2. It is difficult to debug.||2. It is easy to debug.|
|3. It executes faster. e.g. C, COBOL||3. It executes slower. E.g. BASIC,
Assembler is a language processor which translates the assembly language program into machine language, e.g. pseudo assembly.
Device driveris a set of programs that controls and manages the device by making them usable in computer system.
The codes (program) written in high level language which is to be translated into machine code is known as source program.
The equivalent machine level program or binary program obtained after the translation from high level language is known as object program (code).
Open source software is free software which gives user the freedom to run the program to modify & redistribute its copies.
Proprietary softwareare also known as special software which does not provide the right to examine modify & redistribute its copies and the programs source code.
The advantages of open source software are:
Disadvantages of open source software are: