Note on Hepatitis and STDs

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Hepatitis

A disease characterized by inflammation of liver is known as hepatitis. There are five main types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus:

  1. A,
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D and
  5. E.

1.Hepatitis A

This is caused by eating infected food or water. The food or water is infected with a virus called HAV (hepatitis A virus). Anal-oral contact during sex can also be a cause. Nearly everyone who develops Hepatitis A makes a full recovery - it does not lead to chronic disease.

2. Hepatitis B:

http://i.imgur.com/onf2Hzz.jpg

It is a disease cause by type B hepatitis virus (HBV). It is one of the common diseases of liver and it is 100 times more infectious than HIV and AIDS. This disease develops gradually without symptoms. So, it is known as 'Silent Killer'. Its incubation period is 6 weeks to 6 months. The patient dies of cirrhosis and cancer of the liver.

Causes

  • Sexual contact. You may become infected if you have unprotected sex with an infected partner whose blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.
  • Sharing of needles. HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood.
  • Accidental needle sticks. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
  • Mother to child. Pregnant women infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth.

Incubation period

  • Usually appear about one to four months after you've been infected
Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B, ranging from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
2. Hepatitis C:

http://i.imgur.com/N7SyWTh.jpg

It is caused by type C hepatitis virus (HCV).

Mode of transmission

  • Contaminated syringe, towels, toothbrush, etc.
  • Unsafe blood transfusion
  • Direct contact with the victim like kissing and sexual intercourse
  • Intravenous drug abuse

It is transmitted to the embryo during pregnancy.

Symptoms

  1. Chronic infection in the liver
  2. Weakness and complete loss of appetite
  3. Abdominal discomfort
  4. Dark Urine
  5. Pale stool Preventing hepatitis

    We have split this list of prevention tips into the individual variation types of hepatitis.

    How to prevent hepatitis A

    Person washing hands
    • Wash your hands with soap after going to the toilet
    • Only consume food that has just been cooked
    • Only drink commercially bottled water, or boiled water if you're unsure of local sanitation
    • Only eat fruits that you can peel if you are somewhere where sanitation is unreliable
    • Only eat raw vegetables if you are sure they have been cleaned/disinfected thoroughly
    • Get a vaccine for hepatitis A if you travel to places where hepatitis may be endemic.

    How to prevent hepatitis B

    • Tell the partner if you are a carrier or try to find out whether he/she is a carrier
    • Practice safe sex
    • Only use clean syringes that have not been used by anyone else
    • Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or manicure instruments
    • Have a hepatitis B series of shots if you are at risk
    • Only allow well sterilized skin perforating equipment (tattoo, acupuncture, etc.).

    How to prevent hepatitis C

    • If you are infected do not let others share your toothbrush, razor, manicure equipment
    • If you are infected cover open wounds
    • Do not share needles, toothbrushes, or manicure equipment
    • If your skin is to be pierced, make sure equipment is well sterilized (tattoo, etc.)
    • Go easy on the alcohol
    • Do not share drug equipment.

    How to prevent hepatitis D

    • Use the same guidelines as for hepatitis B. Only a person who is infected with hepatitis B can become infected with hepatitis D.

    How to prevent hepatitis E

    • Do the same as you would to protect yourself from hepatitis A infection

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted through unsafe sexual contact. Virus, bacteria, pretoria, fungus ans ectoparasites cause them. The common STDs are syphilis, gonorrhoea, HIV/AIDS, etc.

Syphilis:

Syphilis is a chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by 'spirochete' or Treponema Pallidum'. It mainly affects heart, liver and brain. The average incubation period of syphilis is approximately three weeks.

Symptoms

Primary stage

A single pain less lesion or sore called a chancre appears in the genitals, anus, lips, tongue, mouth, breast, fingers, etc and they disappear after 1-5 weeks of appearance.

Secondary stage

After one week to six months of primary stage, the ulcer secondary syphilis signs appear which are as follows: -

  1. A copper-colored rash lasting about six weeks appears on the various parts of the body.
  2. Whitish patches in the mouth or throat
  3. 'Patchy' falling hair
  4. Low fever, poor appetite, weight loss
  5. Painless swelling of lymph glands
  6. Pain in bones and joints

Final stage

In the final stage, the disease is considered communicable for approximately four years following initial infection. Syphilis, at the least stage, can become destructive in nature

  1. Heart diseases
  2. Insanity
  3. Paralysis (Spinal cord damage)
  4. Blindness (Eye problems)
  5. Infertility of female and male importance

Preventive measures

  1. Awareness through education.
  2. Use sterile syringes.
  3. Avoid prostitution and sexual promiscuity.
  4. Syphilis can easily be treated with one injection of penicillin.
  5. Avoid personal belongings of infected person.

Gonorrhea:

http://i.imgur.com/N8CXqCs.jpg

Gonorrhoea is an infection of genitourinary tract caused by Neisseria Gonococcus. It mainly affects the mucus membrane of genitourinary tract. Its incubation period is approximately 3-9 days.

Modes of transmission

  1. Sexual intercourse
  2. Direct contact
  3. Mother to baby
  4. Fomites to infected persons

Symptoms

  1. Painful and frequent urination
  2. Yellowish pus like discharge from vagina
  3. Swelling in genitals and urethra
  4. Red spots in the genitals.
  5. Female infertility

Preventive measures

  1. Adopt healthy and appropriate sexual behaviour.
  2. Care to personal and genital hygiene.
  3. Increase female education and employment to avoid prostitution.
  4. Discourage unsafe sexual behaviour with others.
  5. Discourage girls trafficking, prostitution and multiple sex partner.

HIV and AIDS:

http://i.imgur.com/DpFQ6yZ.jpg

AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is caused by a retrovirus known as HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus). AIDS is not a disease but a stage in which various symptoms and syndromes can emerge.

Modes of transmission

  1. Unsafe sexual contact with HIV infected person.
  2. Contaminated blood transfusion.
  3. Mother to baby
  4. Use of skin-piercing injection, blade, etc. without sterilization.

Signs and symptoms

a. Major Signs

  1. Weight loss more than 10% of the body weight
  2. Continuous diarrhea for more than one month
  3. Continuous fever for more than one month

b. Minor signs

  1. Persistent cough for more than one month
  2. Generalized itchy skin disease
  3. Seen various types of herpes
  4. Thrush in mouth and throat.

http://i.imgur.com/MBIHE5j.png

Preventive measures

  1. Avoid sexual relation with others except one's spouse.
  2. Use disposable syringes
  3. Safe blood transfusion
  4. Regular cleanliness of the genitals.
  5. Use of contraceptives
  6. Awareness

  • Hepatitis B develops gradually without symptoms. So, it is known as 'Silent Killer'.
  • Syphilis mainly affects heart, liver and brain. It is caused by Treponema Pallidum.
  • The symptoms of Hepatitis C are chronic infection in the liver, weakness and complete loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort, dark urine and pale stool.
  • Gonorrhea is caused by Gonococcus of Neisser.
  • AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is caused by a retrovirus known as HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus).
.

Very Short Questions

When a person causes Hepatitis B, the liver of the body is affected.

The bacteria known as Treponema Pallidum causes syphilis.

HIV stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus and AIDS for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

Gonorrhea is a contagious disease that is brought by a germ known as Neisseria Gonococcus and affects genitals, urinary track, rectum, cervix etc. The germ is received due to sexual contact with infected person or other sources like vaginal discharges containing the germ.
Symptoms:

  1. Painful, burning and frequent urination
  2. Puss-like discharge from penis and vagina
  3. Inflammation in urinary track or genitals.
Control measures:
  1. Adopt healthy and safe sex relation
  2. Take proper care of genital hygiene
  3. Discourage girls trafficking, prostitution and heterogeneous sex
  4. Spread health education
  5. If infected, consult doctor immediately for treatment

AIDS is transmitted through following ways:

  1. exual contact with the HIV infected sex partner
  2. Transfusion of HIV infect blood
  3. Drug addiction
  4. HIV infected mother to her new baby
The following measures can be useful for controlling HIV/AIDS
  1. Raise public awareness about the modes of transmission and effects of HIV/AIDS
  2. Create employment and earning opportunities for the vulnerable daughters and their parents
  3. Legislate laws to end girl trafficking and to attain gender equity
  4. Co-operate with India and have proper control over border activities and prostitution

To prevent from sexually transmitted infections, following measures should be adopted. (1) Sexual contact in early age should not be done because of lack of appropriate and necessary skills before right age. (2) Sex with many persons should be avoided as STIs occur due to the sexual contact with STIs infected persons. (3) Condom should be used properly while having sexual contact which prevents STIs as well as unwanted pregnancy. (4) Blood should be checked properly before transfusion of it because HIV & AIDS and other STIs are transmitted through the blood. (5) Syringe and piercing tools should be well sterilized before reuse or used once only. (6) Widespread awareness on the safer sexual behaviours.

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  • Which one of them caused by type B hepatitis virus?

    Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis D
  • Which disease is known as 'Silent Killer'?

    Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis D
    Hepatitis B
  • Which one of them mainly affects heart, liver and brain?

    Syphilis
    Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis C
    Gonorrhea
  • AIDS is caused by virus called ______.

    retro virus
    rhino virus
    type B hepatitis virus (HBV)
    paramyxo virus
  • The viral hepatitis can be divided into ______.

    three groups
    seven groups
    five groups
    nine groups
  • Gonorrhoea is caused by ______.

    Nigeria Gonococcus
    Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
    type B hepatitis virus
    Neisseria Gonococcus
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Rabin

Normally, after how many days HIV is seen in blood test?


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