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Note on Bacteria and Fungi

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Bacteria

Fig: Bacteria
Fig: Bacteria

Bacteria are single celled microorganisms. They are simple, primitive and microscopic prokaryotic organisms. It was first discovered by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. At first, it was thought as animals. Later it was named as bacterium by Ehrenberg in 1829. Similarly, Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch found that some diseases like tuberculosis, cholera in man and anthrax in cattle is caused by bacteria. The study of bacteria is called bacteriology. We cannot see bacteria through our naked eyes it can be seen only by using a microscope. The shape and size of bacteria usually remain constant. But some bacteria can change their shape and size with the change in the environment which are known as polymorphic. Bacteria are of different size like some of them are spherical, rod-shaped, helical and filamentous. Some of the examples of bacteria are monococcus, monobacillus, spirilla,thioturix etc. The locomotion organ of bacteria is flagella.They can live in the soil, in the ocean, and inside the human gut. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there are no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

General Characteristics

  • They have an autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • Flagella is present as locomotion organ.
  • The reserve food materials in them are glycogen and lipids
  • They are made of the prokaryotic cell.
  • Reproduction takes place through binary fission.

Importance

  • Some bacteria like rhizobium converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate.
  • Bacteria convert dead and decaying organic matter into useful substances like nitrites and ammonia.
  • Many medicines, antibiotics, antibodies, antiserum, and vaccines are produced by using various types of bacteria like Bacillus brevis, Bacillus subtilis etc.
  • Many types of bacteria are used in dairies like Lactobacilli, Acidophilus etc.
  • Micrococcusbacteria helps in curing and ripening of tea and tobacco leaves.

Disadvantages of Bacteria

  • Many diseases are caused by bacteria like Diplococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia, Vibrio comma causes asiatic cholera, Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis.
  • Some bacteria like Pseudomonas decreases the fertility of the soil.
  • Some bacteria spoil the foods in summer season like Clostridium botulinum.
  • Some bacteria causes plant diseases like citrus canker by Xanthomonas citiri, ring rot potato by Corynebacterium sepedonicum.

Control Measures of Bacterial Diseases.

  • Only those plant should be used that is not affected by bacteria.
  • Anti- bacterial medicines should be used.
  • Those people who are affected by the bacterial diseases should use medicines as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Personal hygiene should be maintained.

Fungi

 

Fungi
Fungi

Fungi are non- green organisms. They cannot prepare their own food so they are known as heterotrophs. They grow in dark, dim or diffuse light. Their body is not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves. The lead parasitic, saprophytic or symbiotic mode of nutrition. The study of fungi is called mycology. They are found in leather goods,wood,clothes, preserved pickles etc where organic matter is present. They reproduce both by vegetative, sexual and asexual reproduction. The vegetative body of fungi is thallus which consists of long, branched filaments called hyphae. The mass of hyphae is called mycelium.

fig: Mushroom
fig: Mushroom

Importance of Fungi

  • Many members of fungi produce antibiotics. For example,fungi like Penicillium produce antibiotics as penicillin.
  • Different species of fungi are used in various types of industries like Aspergillus and Penicillium are used in cheese industry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae in baking industry etc.
  • Fungi like mushroom are used as food which contains important vitamins and minerals.
  • The decompose dead and decayed organisms which helps to increase the fertility of the soil.
  • Several fungi are used in the commercial production of various organic acids like citric acid, lactic acid etc.

Harmful Activities of Fungi

  • It causes plant diseases like brown rust, early blight of potato etc.
  • Fungi like Alternaria, Penicillium etc cause destructive of wool, cotton, rayon etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • The rotting of food is caused by fungi like Yeast, Mucor etc.
  • Many species of fungi spoils dairy product like Aspergillus, Penicillium etc

Control Measures of Fungi

  • Fungi can be destroyed by using the fungicide.
  • Fungi can also be reduced by using sugar.
  • Different types of foods like milk, fruits, cooked food, meat etc should be stored in cold places or refrigerators.
  • Personal hygiene should be maintained to remove fungus from our body.
  • Awareness programs should be created about fungi.

  • Bacteria  was first discovered by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. 
  •  The locomotion organ of bacteria is flagella.
  • Some bacteria like rhizobium converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate.
  • Bacteria convert dead and decaying organic matter into useful substances like nitrites and ammonia.
  • Many members of fungi produce antibiotics. For example,fungi like Penicillium produce antibiotics as penicillin.
  • Several fungi are used in the commercial production of various organic acids like citric acid, lactic acid etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • Fungi can be destroyed by using the fungicide.
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Very Short Questions

Any four general characteristics of bacteria are as follows,

  • They have an autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • Flagella is present as locomotion organ.
  • The reserve food materials in them are glycogen and lipids
  • They are made of the prokaryotic cell.

Some of the harmful activities of fungi are as follows,

  • It causes plant diseases like brown rust, early blight of potato etc.
  • Fungi like Alternaria, Penicillium etc cause destructive of wool, cotton, rayon etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • The rotting of food is caused by fungi like Yeast, Mucor etc.
  • Many species of fungi spoils dairy product like Aspergillus, Penicillium etc

Some of the economic importance of fungi are as follows,

  • Many species of fungi produces antibiotics.
  • Fungi is also used in industries like in baking industries, brewery industries, cheese industries etc.
  • Fungi is also used as food like the mushroom.
  • Fungi is used in the production of various organic acids like citric acid, fumaric acid etc.

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  • Who discovered the bacteria?

    Robert Koch
    Louis Pasteur
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
    Ehrenberg
  • The study of bacteria is called

    Bacterium
    Bacteriostudy
    Virology
    Bacteriology
  • Thoses bacteria which can change their shape and size with the change in the environment are known as

    Changing bacteria
    Polymorphic
    Amolymorphic
    Morphic
  • The locomotory organ of bacteria is

    Hooks
    Flagella
    Cilia
    Legs
  • Which one of the following is not the example of bacteria?

    spirilla
    monobacillus
    monococcus
    Brassica oleracea
  • Which one of the following is an example of bacteria?

    Naja raja
    Dauscus carota
    Bacteriods
    Felis domestica
  • Reproduction in bacteria takes place through

    Binary fission
    Sporulation
    Gemmules
    Budding
  • Which one of the following bacteria is used in dairies?

    Xanthomonas citiri
    Clostridium botulinum
    Bacillus subtilis
    Lactobacilli
  • What is the mode of nutrtion of bacteria?

    Heterotrophic
    Autotrophic
    Both of them
    none of the given
  • What type is the bacterial cell?

    Eucaryotic cell
    all of the given
    Multicellular
    Procaryotic cell
  • The study of fungi is called

    virology
    Fungilogy
    bacteriology
    mycology
  • Fungi are

    Green organisms
    Long grasses
    Huge plants
    Non- green organisms
  • Fungi can be destroyed by using

    Water
    Fungicide
    Virus
    Bacteria
  • Fungi reproduce by

    Asexual reproduction
    Vegetative reproduction
    All of them
    Sexual reproduction
  • The mass of hyphae is called

    Penicillium
    Thallus
    Aspergillus
    Mycellium
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