Note on Non-communicable Disease

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The diseases which are mainly caused due to an unhealthy lifestyle, lack of exercise, unhealthy food, etc. but are not transferred from one person to another are called non-communicable diseases.

Causative factors of Non-communicable Diseases

There are various causes of non-communicable diseases. They can be divided into two groups:

1. Modifiable risk factors

Almost 80 percent of non-communicable diseases are caused by modifiable risk factors such as: -

  • Smoking or chewing tobacco
  • Excessive drinking of alcohol
  • Unhygienic food
  • Lack of physical exercise
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure and diabetes

2. Non-modifiable risk factors

  • Heredity
  • Physical passiveness

Cancer

Cancer is the rapid formation of abnormal cells which grow beyond boundaries and can occupy remaining part of the body.

http://i.imgur.com/LicdODH.gif

Causes

  1. Heredity
  2. Long continued and repeated injury
  3. Smoking (pipe smoking causes lung cancer)Syphilis of tongue causes tongue cancer.
  4. Excessive exposure to sunlight and radiant can cause skin cancer.
  5. Virus and bacteria (Example: Human Papilloma Virus causes cervical cancer and Helicobacter Pylori causes gastric cancer)

Signs of cancer

  1. Irregular bleeding
  2. Non-healing sore
  3. Persistent indigestion and loss of appetite
  4. Sudden change in appearance
  5. Persistent thickening of tissue
  6. Excessive pain
  7. Present of body mass ( eg: myeloma, lymphoma etc.)

Prevention and control

http://i.imgur.com/XL5vSIC.jpg

  1. About 40% cancer can be prevented through healthy lifestyle which includes healthy diet, physical activity and avoiding alcohol and tobacco
  2. Timely treatment of any wound
  3. Breast self-examination
  4. Sound and clean environment
  5. Avoid exposing body in chemical pollution and ultraviolet rays
  6. Excessive breast-feeding by lactated mother

Heart diseases
a. Heart attack and stroke

When arteries fail to supply enough blood to the heart, due to lack of nutrients and oxygen, the heart muscles fails to pump enough blood out of the arteries. This condition is known as heart attack.Similarly, stroke is caused when there is disturbance in the supply of blood to the brain.

Causes of heart attack

  1. Use of tobacco products and alcohol
  2. Unhealthy lifestyle and the use of fatty and spicy food
  3. Lack of physical exercise
  4. Anxiety and mental tension

Symptoms of heart attack

  1. Pain in chest and back
  2. Soreness over the heart or in the liver region.
  3. Restlessness and sleeplessness
  4. Shortness of breath

Symptoms of stroke

  1. Paralysis in one side of face, hand or leg
  2. Imbalanced body with headache and immobility

Preventive measures

  1. Avoid use of tobacco and alcohol
  2. Regular physical exercise at least for 30 to 45 minutes a day
  3. Increase the use of fruits and vegetables rather than more fat , salt and sugar
  4. Obesity and blood pressure control
  5. Freedom from anxiety and tension

b. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

http://i.imgur.com/1vdlapj.jpg

In the children between the age of 3 to 15 years, tonsillitis and pharyngitis are common which causes mild fever and swelling in the limbs and joints. This type of fever which is caused due to swelling and pain is called rheumatic fever.It is caused by the bacteria called Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Group - A.Those children, who are suffering from rheumatic fever, have damaged heart valves and this damage in the heart valves caused from rheumatic fever by streptococcal bacteria is called rheumatic heart disease.

Signs and symptoms of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

  1. Throat pains (tonsillitis, pharyngitis)
  2. Mild fever
  3. Loss of voice
  4. Swelling in the joint
  5. Joint pain

Preventive measure

  1. Timely treatment of a sore throat with the help of antibiotics.
  2. Periodic health checks up
  3. Personal health and hygiene
  4. Proper balance diet and physical exercise
  5. Children should be protected from cold.

Diabetes

It is a chronic disease caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce sufficient insulin, a hormone that is responsible for regulating sugar level in blood.According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 180 million diabetic people worldwide.

Causes

  1. The malfunction of the pancreas or the disturbance in the pancreas.
  2. Lack of exercise
  3. Genetic factors

http://i.imgur.com/rZgIXzo.jpg

Symptoms and effects

  1. Blindness due to damage in the retina.
  2. Diabetic neuropathy (damage to the nerves).
  3. Tingling, pain or numbness.
  4. Weakness in the feet or hands.
  5. Death due to kidney failure in about 10 - 20 percent people.
  6. Death due to heart strokes and diseases in about 50 percent people.

Preventive measures

  1. Regular physical exercise, games and sports, yoga for at least 30 to 45 minutes a day
  2. Balanced diet
  3. Obesity control
  4. A healthy relationship between members of the family.
  5. Avoid alcohol and tobacco use.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

http://i.imgur.com/8Io4ejs.gif

COPD is a lung disease characterised by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. It cannot be cured but can be controlled.According to WHO, there are about 80 million people suffering from this disease worldwide.

Causes

  1. Smoking
  2. Air pollution and harmful chemicals
  3. Lung infections during childhood.
  4. Occupational dust and chemical
  5. Smoke while cooking food.

Preventive measures

  1. Protection from pollution and harmful chemicals and gases.
  2. use of mask.
  3. maintaining well ventilation room
complication
  1. lung cancer

  • The diseases that are mainly caused due to an unhealthy lifestyle, lack of exercise, unhealthy food, etc. but are not transferred from one person to another are called non-communicable diseases.
  • Rheumatic fever is caused by the bacteria called Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Group - A.
  • Human Papilloma Virus causes cervical cancer and Helicobacter Pylori causes gastric cancer.
  • According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 180 million diabetic people worldwide.
  • COPD is a lung disease which is caused due to the formation of small holes in the lungs making it difficult to breathe normally.
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Very Short Questions

Due to Human Papilloma, there is cancer in genitals especially in the cervix.

Sometimes, the supply of blood to the heart is interrupted due to narrowing of the blood vessels in cardiac muscles. The heart can't function in this complex stage and it is known as heart attack. Similarly, narrowing of blood vessels causes severe problem in brain which is called stroke. The common causes of heart diseases are as follows:

  1. Unhygienic food
  2. Use of tobacco, alcohol and excessive fat
  3. Lack of physical labour
  4. Heredity

Following measures can be taken for the prevention of heart diseases: -
  1. Take hygienic food
  2. Do regular physical exercise and maintain physical fitness
  3. Avoid extra fat, alcohol and tobacco

The main causes of cancer are:

  1. Heredity
  2. Long continued and repeated injury
  3. Smoking (pipe smoking causes lung cancer)
  4. Excessive exposure to sun causes skin cancer
  5. Virus and bacteria (Example: Human Papilloma Virus causes cervical cancer and Helicobacter Pylori causes gastric cancer)

We can know that we have cancer by focusing towards the symptoms that cancer shows. The symptoms varies according to cancer but these might be the common symptoms for cancer:

  1. Irregular bleeding
  2. Non healing sore
  3. Persistent indigestion and loss of appetite
  4. Sudden change in appearance
  5. Persistent thickening of tissue

Diabetes is caused due to failure of pancreas to secrete insulin due to which there is a high level of sugar in blood. There is no causative agent for this disease and it does not get transmitted from person to person. The basic causes of diabetes are:

  1. Malfunction of pancreas or the disturbance in the pancreas
  2. Lack of exercise
  3. Genetic factors

The following are the ways to preventive diabetes: -

  1. Regular physical exercise, games, sports and yoga for at least 30 to 45 minutes a day
  2. Balanced diet
  3. Obesity control
  4. Healthy relationship between members of family
  5. Avoid alcohol and tobacco use

0%
  • According to WHO, how many diabetic people are in world?

    180 Million
    188 Million
    None of the options are correct
    180 Billion
  • The disease that is capable of causing blindness due to damage in the retina is ______.

    common cold
    dysentery
    diabetes
    cholera
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a ______.

    heart disease
    none of the options are correct
    lung disease
    common cold
  • The rapid formation of abnormal cells which grow beyond boundaries and can occupy remaining part of the body is called ______.

    heart attack
    diabetes
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    cancer
  • The full form of COPD is ______.

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diabetes
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Central Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Chronic Objective Pulmonary Disease
  • Rheumatic fever is caused by bacteria called ______.

    Clostridium tetani
    Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Staph aureus
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