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Note on Communicable Diseases

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Those diseases which are mainly caused by virus and bacteria and can be transferred from an unhealthy person to a healthy person is called communicable disease. They are caused by contact with a sick person through the medium of clothes, food, insect, injections, etc.

Some common communicable diseases

Food and water-borne diseases

Communicable diseases consist of food and water borne diseases, air-borne diseases/ droplet infection, diseases transmitted through contaminated needles which are described below.

Round worm (Ascaris Lumbriocoides)

http://i.imgur.com/lB35VFC.jpgRoundworm is called Ascariasis. Exposure to dirt and germs is the main cause of its transmission. The egg of roundworm enters into our body through dirty water, food and hand. After crossing various stages in its life cycle, a matured roundworm starts suffering us.

Modes of transmission:

  1. Faecal-oral route
  2. Poor personal hygiene
  3. Lack of food hygiene
  4. Vector transmission

Symptoms:

  1. Children may feel nausea and abdominal pain.
  2. Live worms are passed in the stool or vomited.
  3. The process of digestion and absorption is disturbed resulting in malnutrition.
  4. Physical development, in children, is retarded.

Diarrhoea

http://i.imgur.com/amMrRE9.jpgDiarrhoea is defined as the passage of loose, liquid or watery stool more than 3 or 4 times a day. It is mainly caused by Gartner Bacillus, Entireties and E.Coli. About 45,000 children die every year due to diarrhoea in Nepal. It may be acute or chronic.

Symptoms:

  1. Watery stool is passed.
  2. Muscle cramp
  3. Intense thirst
  4. Dehydration
  5. Sunken eyes and hollow cheeks
  6. Mucus or blood is seen in the stool.

Prevention and control

  1. Oral rehydration therapy
  2. Have nutritious liquid diet regularly
  3. Using medicine according to the causative agent
  4. Maintenance of personal hygiene
  5. Proper disposal of human excreta
  6. Educating people about the causes and consequences of diarrhoea

Dysentery

This disease also comes under the gastro-intestinal diseases. It is either caused by bacteria called shigella saga and flexneri or an amoeba, namely Entamoeba histolyctica.

Modes of transmission

  1. Oral faecal route
  2. Vector transmision

A. Amoebiasis or Amoebic dysentery:

Amoebiasis is a protozoal disease caused by Entamoeba histolyctica with or without clinical manifestations. It is a common infection in the human gastro-intestinal tract.

Signs and Symptoms

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Mucus is seen in stool
  3. Dehydration
  4. Sunken eyes and hollow cheeks
  5. Weakness and thirst

B. Bacillary dysentery:

http://i.imgur.com/tasyhUK.jpg

This disease is caused by Shigella Shiga and Flexneri. It is also known as blood dysentery because of the presence of blood in the stool.

Symptoms

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Frequent passage of stool
  3. Mucus and blood are seen in stool
  4. Intense thirst
  5. Dehydration

Preventive Measures of Dysentery

  1. Safe disposal of human excreta.
  2. Provision of safe drinking water supply in the community.
  3. Maintenance of personal hygiene and food hygiene.
  4. Awareness in people.

Cholera

http://i.imgur.com/BPlhmov.jpg

Cholera is acute diarrhoea caused by Vibrio Cholera. It is characterised by the sudden onset of effortless watery diarrhoea followed by vomiting, rapid dehydration, muscular cramps and suppression of urine.

Modes of transmission

  1. Faecally contaminated water.
  2. Contaminated food and drinks.
  3. Direct contact with an infected person.
  4. Flies act as a mechanical carrier.

Symptoms

  1. Watery diarrhoea followed by vomiting
  2. Stool with ' rice water ' appearance.Frequent passage of stool
  3. Dehydration, resulting intense thirst, sunken eyes, hollow cheeks, decreased urine output and low blood pressure.

Prevention and Control of Cholera

  1. Provision of safe drinking water
  2. Proper disposal of human excreta
  3. Maintenance of food hygiene.
  4. Maintenance of personal and environmental sanitation.
  5. Re-hydration therapy.

Prevention of food and water borne diseases

  1. Protect food from contamination and flies
  2. Use safe drinking water
  3. Wash hands after toilet and before eating.Use oral-dehydration mixture
  4. Special care in personal hygiene and environmental sanitation

Common cold:

http://i.imgur.com/B0nLwzT.jpg

Commoncold is an acute viral disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by a filterable virus which is also known as Rhino virus. It is characterised by the inflammation of mucus membrane of the nose, sinuses and throat. The incubation period of common cold is 12-72 hours.

Modes of transmission

  1. Droplet infection.
  2. Direct contact with the infected person.

Symptoms

  1. Irritation in throat and nose
  2. Swollen sinuses which cause difficulty in breathing
  3. Changed voice
  4. Watery eyes
  5. Frequent nasal discharge
  6. Slight fever

Preventive measures

  1. Patient should take rest and is to be kept in isolation.Use personal handkerchief
  2. Proper dispose of nasal discharge and cough
  3. Regular physical exercise
  4. Adequate Vitamin 'C' to develop resistance against common cold and take adequate liquid

  • Those diseases that are mainly caused by virus and bacteria and can be transferred from an unhealthy person to a healthy person are called communicable diseases.
  • Roundworm is called Ascariasis. 
  • Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of loose, liquid or watery stools more than 3 or 4 times a day.
  • Cholera is acute diarrhoea caused by Vibrio Cholera.
  • Common cold is an acute viral disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by the filterable virus which is also known as Rhinovirus.
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Very Short Questions

Communicable diseases transfer form one person to other but non-communicable diseases don't, these are limited in the sufferers only.

Diarrhea refers to the gastrointestinal infection in which there is frequent and excessive discharge of watery stool.

Amoebic dysentery and bacillary dysentery are the two types of dysentery.

The name of the germ that causes Amoebic dysentery is Entamoeba Histolytica.

Vibro Cholera is the name of the germ that causes cholera.

The intestinal disease that is caused by roundworm is called ascariasis.

Lack of proper cleanliness and health awareness are the main causes behind ascariasis.

Diarrhea is a gastro-intestinal disease. It refers to the condition in which there is frequent and abnormally watery bowel movement. Gartner bacillus, Enterides and E. coli are the main germs that carry diarrhea. It is transmitted through fecal-oral route with the help of contaminated food and water. Flies are common vectors. The following are the three main symptoms of diarrhea: -

  1. Abdominal pain and frequent discharges of watery stool
  2. Weakness and cramping of muscles
  3. Dehydration and fainting

Cholera is an acute form of gastro-intestinal disorder in which there is frequent discharge of watery stool accompanied by vomiting. Cholera is brought by germ known as ‘Vibrio Cholera'. The disease occurs due to poor sanitation and also through contaminated food and water.
Symptoms:

  1. Frequent watery stools without abdominal pain
  2. Vomiting
  3. Acute dehydration
  4. Little or no urination
  5. Low blood pressure

Preventive measures:

  1. Wash hands before meal
  2. Use latrine
  3. Control pollution
  4. Protect food from flies
  5. Use safe water

0%
  • The disease in which the process of digestion and absorption is disturbed resulting in malnutrition is called ______.

    round worm
    diarrhea
    none of the options are correct
    dysentery
  • Which one of them is caused by Gartner Bacillus, Entireties and E.Coli?

    Diarrhea
    Round worm
    Cholera
    Dysentery
  • This disease is caused by Vibrio Cholera is ______.

    amoebic dysentery
    bacillary dysentery
    dysentery
    cholera
  • This disease is caused by as Rhino virus is ______.

    common cold
    cold
    dysentery
    cholera
  • Roundworm is also called______.

    Megadriles
    Cestode
    Parasitic flatworm
    Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Which is not the causative agent of diarrhoea?

    E.Coli
    Entireties
    Gartner Bacillu
    Neisseria Gonococcus
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sapana

hiv doesn't cause deaths .why?


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Symptoms of HIV


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aliza

characteristics of communicable disease


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