A firm is said to be in equilibrium when it maximized its profit. It is also called as the difference between Total Revenue (TR) and Total Cost (TC). The firm gives various outputs; sometimes it gives low and sometimes it gives the high output which provides lower profit to firm. When the situation is of nor high nor low i.e. equilibrium is obtained and it gives more profit.
Once the firm attained equilibrium, the firm doesn’t have the incentive to change its price and output because profit is already maximized.
According to Hanson, “A firms will be in equilibrium when it has no advantage to increase or decrease its output.”
The firm equilibrium is explained with the help of two approaches they are as follows:
According to this approach, the firm is said to be in equilibrium if the following conditions are fulfilled:
These three conditions are also known as sufficient conditions. If these conditions are fulfilled the firm is said to be in equilibrium i.e. Maximized profit, which is clearly shown in the figure below.
In Economics, Industry is the group of a firm producing homogeneous product or commodity. In the perfect competition market the must be fulfilled for an industry to be in equilibrium they are:
It is clearly shown in the figure below:
In the above figure (A), SS is the supply curve and DD is a demand curve and AR and MR is equal. An industry is in equilibrium at the point “E”. OP is the equilibrium price and OQ is the equilibrium Quantity output. The industry gets equilibrium at price OP, where demand and supplies are equal. The firm is in equilibrium by making MC = MR and MC cuts MR below at the point E. So that it is called firm equilibrium. The firm earned an abnormal profit equal to area P1EBA. But it should be noticed that if the firm earned supernormal profit or loss, it is only short-run equilibrium hence, the third condition for equilibrium can be only realized in a long run.
(Karna, Khanal, and Chaulagain)(Khanal, Khatiwada, and Thapa)(Jha, Bhusal, and Bista)
Jha, P.K., et al. Economics II. Kalimati, Kathmandu: Dreamland Publication, 2011.
Karna, Dr.Surendra Labh, Bhawani Prasad Khanal and Neelam Prasad Chaulagain. Economics. Kathmandu: Jupiter Publisher and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, 2070.
Khanal, Dr. Rajesh Keshar, et al. Economics II. Kathmandu: Januka Publication Pvt. Ltd., 2013.