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Note on Acid

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The chemical substance that releases hydrogen ion/s (H+ion/s) in aqueous solution or donates proton/s during chemical reaction is called an acid.

Examples:

HCl (Hydrochloric acid): H++ Cl-
HNO3 (Nitric acid): H+ + NO3-

Types of Acids

On the basis of strength, acids are of two types:

  1. Dilute acids:Those acids that release relatively less concentration of hydrogen ions in their aqueous solution are called dilute acids.
  2. Concentrated acids:Those acids that release relatively more concentration of hydrogen ions in their aqueous solution are called concentrated acid. Most of the mineral acids are concentrated acid.

Similarly, on the basis of their origin, acids are of two types:

  1. Organic acids: Those acids which can be extracted from living beings are called organic acids. Example: citric acid, tartaric acid, formic acid.
  2. Inorganic acids: Those acids which are obtained from the minerals are called inorganic acid. They are Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric acid (HNO3) and Sulphuric acid (H2SO4).

Properties of Acid

  1. Acidshavesour taste. But acids like stearic acid, boric acid, may not have the sour taste. Fruits like lemon, grapes, vinegar etc. contain citric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid respectively and they are edible acids.Hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid are strong acids and are in nature. So, it is dangerous to taste mineral acids.

  2. The acids turn blue litmus paper into red,the light yellow color of methyl orange into red. They are neutral to phenolphthalein.

  3. Acid reacts with thebase, in which characteristics of both are destroyed or neutralized and salt and water are given out. NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O


    Fig: Sodium chloride (Salt used in our food)

  4. They give off hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water. They conduct electricity. HCl → H+ + Cl-

Uses of Acids

    1. Sulfuric acid is used for making chemical fertilizers like (NH4) SO4, NH4NO3, etc.; drugs and detergents.
    2. Nitric acid are used in the manufacture of chemical fertilizer like NH4NO3,explosives and plastics.

      http://previewcf.turbosquid.com/Preview/2011/12/01__00_10_21/55.jpgba84edf9-a833-46de-bbf4-f0a38ac31518Large.jpg

      Fig: TNT (Explosive where nitric acid is used

      http://orj.cc/product_images/uploaded_images/Ammonium_Nitrate.jpg

      Fig: Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)
    3. Hydrochloric acid is used for bleaching purpose in textile industries for making glue, etc.
    4. Carbonic acid is used in soft drinks like soda water, coca cola, etc.
    5. Acetic acid is found in vinegar which is used for flavors.
    6. Tartaric acid is used in baking powder.

Fig: Baking powder

  • Substances which release hydrogen ions (H+ions) in aqueous solution or donates proton during the chemical reaction are called acid.
  • On the basis of strength, acids are of two types. They are dilute acid and concentrated acid.
  • On the basis of their origin acids are of two types. They are organic acids and inorganic acids.
  • Fruits like lemon, grapes, vinegar etc. contain citric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid respectively and they are edible acids.
  • Hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid are strong acids and corrosive  in nature. So, it is dangerous to taste mineral acids.
  • Acids are used to make chemical fertilizers like (NH4)SO4, NH4NO3, etc.
  • Tartaric acid is used in baking powder.
.

Very Short Questions

Acid

Base

1. Acid gives hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water.

2. Acid possesses sour taste.

3. Acid turns blue litmus into red.

1. Base gives hydroxyl ions when it is dissolved in water.

2. Base possesses bitter taste.

3. Base turns red litmus into blue.

Ordinary indicator

Universal indicator

1. It is prepared from red-rose, beet root and lichen.

2. It determines whether the solution is acidic or basic in nature.

1. It is prepared by the combination of ordinary indicators.

2. It determines the strength of acidic and basic solutions.

Chemical name

Common name

Molecular formula

i. Sodium Chloride

Common salt

NaCl

ii. Sodium Carbonate

Washing soda

Na2CO3. 10H2O

iii. Sodium Bicarbonate

Baking soda

Na HCO­3

iv. Sodium Sulphate

Glauber's Salt

Na2SO4. 10H2O

Alkali

Base

i. Alkalis are the hydroxides of metals.

ii. All alkalis are soluble in water.

i. Bases are the oxides of metals.

ii. All bases are not soluble in water.

Salt

Color

i. Lead sulphate

White

ii. Copper carbonate

Green

iii. Zinc chromate

Yellow

iv. Titanium dioxide

White

An acid is a substance which gives a hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water.

HCl is called an acid because it gives H+ ions when dissolved in water. When HCl reacts with NaOH, neutral substances sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O) are formed.

Methanoic acid passes into the skin when nettle stings.

Vinegar or acetic acid is used for the treatment of the wasp sting.

Calcium hydroxide is used for the treatment of acidic soil and gypsum is used for the treatment of basic soil.

i. The name of the compound is hydrochloric acid and the molecular formula is HCl.
ii. When the given compound is mixed with methyl orange, it turns into red color.
iii. The magnesium chloride salt is formed when the given compound reacts with magnesium.

When NaHSO4 is dissolved in water it gives sulphate (SO4--) ion which is acidic ion. Therefore, NaHSO4 is acidic salt.

0%
  • The first noble gas in the periodic table is ______.

    Neon


    Helium


    Argon


    Hydrogen


  • Those substances which release hydrogen ions (H+ions) in aqueous solution or donates proton during chemical reaction are called ______.

    acid


    both acid and base


    salt


    base


  • The acids turn blue litmus paper into ______.

    neutral


    red


    light yellow


    orange


  • Acids are neutral to

    phenolphthalein.
    methyl orange
    All the answers are correct
    litmus paper
  • Those acids that release relatively less concentration of hydrogen ions in their aqueous solution are ______.

    organic acid


    inorganic acid


    dilute acid


    concentrated acid


  • You scored /5


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david

how to remove hardness of water


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Aryaman

HCL is kept in glass or plastic bottle.Why?


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acid

which metal react with both alkali and acid?


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