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Note on Types of Societies

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Society is the aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community. Society is a group of people involved in social interaction or a large group of people sharing the same geographical or social territory. We have discussed about a society, its characteristics, social development in the previous lesson. Now, let's discuss the types of Societies. The Societies are broadly classified on the basis of level of development, inequality, urbanization, level and political organization.

Classification of Society

There have been six types of societies throughout history:
  • Hunting and gathering societies.
  • Pastoral societies.
  • Horticultural societies.
  • Agricultural societies.
  • Industrial societies.
  • Post-industrial societies.

Hunting and gathering Societies

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The members survive primarily by hunting, trapping, fishing, and gathering edible plants. A majority of the members' time is spent looking for and gathering food. They spend most of their time for looking and gathering food. A hunting and gathering society has following characteristics:

  1. Family is the society's primary institution. Family determines the distribution of food and how to socialize children.
  2. Hunting and gathering societies were nomadic.
  3. Societies used to be small in size.
  4. Family was the society's primary institutions. Family used to determine food and to socialize children.
  5. Members of hunting and gathering societies are mutually dependent upon each other.
  6. Male are supposed to be hunters and female gathers as there was division of labour on the basis of sex.

Pastoral society

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Unlike hunting and gathering societies, pastoral societies only have to move when the land in which the animals graze is no longer usable. Pastoral societies also allow for job specialization, since not everyone is needed to gather or hunt for food. For example, while some people breed animals, others are able to produce tools or clothing, which allows for specialization in these areas.

Some major characteristics of this type of Society are:

  1. The society was common in areas where crops couldn't be supported.
  2. The society was divided on people having more animals and less animals.
  3. In Pastoral society, the system of job specification started. For example some people bred animals, some to produce tools or clothing etc.

Such society exists even today in Middle East, Africa, Tibet, Middle Asia and Northern part of Nepal.

Horticulture Society

a

These societies rely on the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and plants in order to survive. Horticultural societies are often forced to relocate when the resources of the land are depleted or when the water supplies decrease.The technological advances led to an increase in food supplies, an increase in population, and the development of trade centers. Some characteristics of horticulture society are:

  1. Animals are used to pull plows.
  2. Plowing allows for cultivation of larger areas of land.
  3. The primary source of food and income is fruit production.
  4. Such society is often forced to relocate when the resources of the land or water supplies decrease.

Agriculture society

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In agricultural society, Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. The society where people get survived by carrying out agriculture activities is agriculture society. Some characteristics of agriculture society are as follows:

  1. The primary source of livelihood and residence is from agriculture products.
  2. This sort of society is categorized into landlord and farmer class.

Industrial Society


The society in which people are involved in producing different sort of products, either for survival or business is called industrial society. Industrialization brought about changes in almost every aspect of society. As factories became the center of work, “home cottages” as the usual workplace became less prevalent, as did the family's role in providing vocational training and education. Some characteristics of this society are as follows:

  1. The primary focus is given to industrial development.
  2. The investors are owners and who work are laborers or workers.
  3. There lies cultural differences in such society.
  4. In the previous societies, there wasn't much gap between rich and poor but there lies a huge gap between wealthy and poor now.

  • Hunting and gathering societies were nomadic.
  • Pastoral society was common in areas where crops couldn't be supported. 
  • Horticulture society is based on the cultivation of fruits, vegetables and plants in order to survive.
  • The Agricultural Society is categorized into landlord and farmer class.
  • The Primary focus of Industrial society is the industrial development, its product and people's livelihood.
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Very Short Questions

In this societies, the members survive primarily by hunting, trapping, fishing, and gathering edible plants. A majority of the members' time is spent looking for and gathering food. They spend most of their time for looking and gathering food.

In agricultural society, there was the Increasement in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. The society where people get survived by carrying out agriculture activities is agriculture society.

There have been six types of societies throughout history:
  • Hunting and gathering societies.
  • Pastoral societies.
  • Horticultural societies.
  • Agricultural societies.
  • Industrial societies.
  • Post-industrial societies.

0%
  • _______________were nomadic.

    Trapping
    Fishing
    Fishery
  • _________societies are the earliest form of society

    Agricultural
    Pastoral
    Industrial
  • The society which is sustained or get survived by domestication and breeding of animals for transporation and food is________

    Agricultural Society
    Hunting Society
    Industrial Society
  • Society exists even today in__________________Northern part of Nepal.

    All
    Africa
    Tibet
  • ____________rely on the cultivation of fruits,vegetables and plants in order to survive.

    Industrial Society
    Hunting Society
    Agricultural Society
  • The society where people get survived by carrying out agriculture activities is ____________

    Industrial Society
    Hunting Society
    Agriculture Society
    Horiculture Society
  • Agriculture Society is also referred to as ____________society

    Uncultivated
    Undomesticated
    All
  • The society in which people are involved in producing different sort of products,either for survival or business is called ________________society.

    Agricutural
    Horicultual
    Hunting Society
  • Industrial society is believed to be into existence in the ________century.

    12th
    14th
    11 th
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