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Note on Education, Training and Employment

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Introduction and Importance

Education
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Fig: Education

Education is the basic component of a human life. It is the process of importing knowledge, skills, and judgment. Besides education, people engage in various kinds of training as well. Both of these aspects help to get the employment opportunities in a human life. Overall, it helps to uplift the living standard of a human being.

Regional and National Level Employment

Employment is the work or occupation for which we get paid. Employees are paid according to their employment level.

Regional Level Employment: The employment opportunities which are connected to a region of a nation according to the geographical feature are known as regional level employment opportunities. It might differ from region to region in a nation. Industries and factories of the different regions vary from each other. For example, tea is popular in Eastern region. We can generate better opportunities by growing tea there but apple, herbs and walnuts are grown mostly in the Western hilly region.

National Level Employment: A large section of people (i.e. 66%) are engaged in the agriculture sector for their livelihood in Nepal. Other 22% are engaged in business and trade whereas the remaining 12% are engaged in other sectors such as manufacturing, handicrafts, etc. The gazetted civil service posts are advertised from central office of PSC. The posts of UN agencies and NGOs are advertised at the national level.

Importance of Regional and National Level Employment

  • Employment is the base of the family prosperity.
  • It creates satisfaction and happiness to the people by earning.
  • People become active, creative and inter-related.
  • People can uplift their living standards.
  • People can fulfill their needs and demands.
  • It also supports national prosperity through socio-cultural and economic development.

Types of Training

Training
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Fig: Training

Training is the process of learning skills and behaviors among labor for a certain time. It helps in gaining knowledge in different activities. Training is further divided into two types. They are:

General Training: The basic type of training usually for a short period of time is known as general training. This type of training gives a general idea about the organization, roles, and responsibilities, attitude building, etc. General training is given by the NGOs, INGOs, and social organizations. General training might be awareness programs, sensations, orientations, etc.

Vocational Training: The training which is done in order to develop the professional skills is known as vocational training. It is longer in time in comparison to the general training. This type of training is related to the development of technical skills like software, hydropower, mechanism, driving, plumbing, etc. This type of training helps to create job opportunities.

Relationship between Vocational Training and Technical Education

Both vocational training and technical education are inter-related to each other but are slightly different. Vocational training is for those people who are uneducated. It is a short-term technical training. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations provide such training.

Technical education is the program for students. It is generally for a longer period. Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) is the recognized organization in Nepal to provide technical education and runs various courses at diploma level or proficiency certificate. So, technical education is a kind of long-term academic course of the vocational training program.

Importance of Vocational Training and Technical Education

  • It creates employment opportunities.
  • It supports poverty alleviation.
  • It supports the economic development of a country.
  • It develops technical manpower and human capital for development projects.
  • People can develop entrepreneurship.

Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)

Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)
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Fig: Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)

Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), established in 1989 AD (2045 BS), is a national autonomous apex body for Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT). It is located at Sanothimi, Bhaktapur. Its main objective is to produce the basic and middle level of vocational and technical human resources required for the national development. It also develops a competent workforce for national and international market needs.

Function and Responsibility of CTEVT

  • policy formulation
  • quality control
  • preparation of competency-based curriculum
  • developing skill standards of various occupations
  • testing the skills of the people
  • conduct various research studies and training needs assessment

The council is chaired by the Ministry of Education. It consists of 24 members and a governing board, known as council, comprises of nine members. The main vision of CTEVT is to develop the skilled human resources for the national prosperity. There are all total 418 technical schools in Nepal. It provides Technical School Leaving Certificate (TSLC) and proficiency Diploma Level programs. There are two types of programs conducted under CTEVT. They are as follows:

Vocational Training: CTEVT provides professional and vocational training to school drop-outs and the people who are either unable to gain a higher education or are interested to gain certain professional skills for their better professional careers. These types of training are a bit longer in the time frame. It offers the courses on demand and need of the people, like agriculture, engineering, health, tourism, management, etc. Anybody can take part in these training.

Technical Training: Technical training means providing basic technical education programs to students. CTEVT conducts various courses of TSLC and Proficiency level on health, engineering and agriculture trades, etc. But the entry qualification needed for TSLC level is SLC pass for a course of 15 months and under SLC for the course of 29 months. Some examples of TSLC and Diploma Level programs are:-

In TSLC programs there are three areas:

  1. Agriculture: JTA (Animal Science and Plant Science)
  2. Engineering (Sub-overseer): Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Automobile, Junior Computer Technician, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration, Sanitary
  3. Health: CMA, ANM, AAHW, Dental Hygienist, Lab Assistant

In Diploma Level programs, there are three areas:

  1. Agriculture: I. Sc. Ag. in Plant Science and Animal Science, Diploma in Food and Dairy Technology
  2. Engineering: Diploma in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Survey Engineering, Computer Engineering, Information Engineering
  3. Health/Medical Science: Proficiency Certificate in General Medicine, Nursing, Medical Lab Technology, Radiography, Ayurvedic Science, Dental Science, Ophthalmic Science

Qualifications Required to join CTEVT Programs

TSLC Level Programs: The basic qualification to join this course is SLC pass for 15 to 18 months course and under SLC for 29 months course.

Certificate/Diploma Level Programs: The entry requirement for 3 year Certificate/Diploma level program is at least SLC pass with second division.

Opportunity for Higher Education: Those who have completed the above requirements are only eligible to attend Bachelor Level of studies in related subjects.

Vocational Training Programs under Other Governmental Organizations

The government offers various vocational training concerned with their respective field and technology. Some of the training institutes focusing vocational training programs are as follows:

Directorate of Agricultural Training (DAT): It is located at Harihar Bhawan, Pulchowk. It formulates different training policies under the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agricultural Development. The policy made by DAT is implemented through five Regional Agricultural Training Center (RATCs) to conduct training programs all over the country. The Directorate commenced since 1987. The Directorate organizes in-service training for employees, institutional capacity improvement training and different vocational training packages on agriculture.

Vocational and Skill Development Training Center: It is located at Bhaisepati, Lalitpur and it is running under Ministry of Labor and Employment. This especially focuses on women, dalits, disabled persons and victims of conflicts to generate self-skills to them. It provides both short and long-term training according to the requirement of people from local to foreign employment promotions.

Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI): It is located at Sanothimi, Bhaktapur as a specialized unit of CTEVT. It provides training adopted by South Asian Nations and many other countries. It was established under Swiss cooperation. It provides quality training in different subjects. Participants from various institutions are getting training from TITI according to their requirements.

Cottage and Small-scale Industry Department (CSID): CSID is running under Ministry of Industry. It is located at Tripureshwor, Kathmandu. It conducts both entrepreneurial and skill development training programs particularly for the potential entrepreneurs of micro enterprises as well as cottage and small scale industries. This program helps to generate self-employment opportunities.

Vocational Training from Different Corporate Organizations: Many corporate organizations have conducted vocational training. Some of the training institutions that focuses on vocational training programs are as follows:

  • Butwal Technical Institute (BTI): It is located at Butwal, Rupandehi district and was established in 2020 B.S. The main objectives of BTI is to provide training required for manpower industries through apprenticeship and other practical models of training with job experiences. It provides vocational training in varieties of technical subjects like medicine, electricity, plumbing, civil, etc. It is the only institution in Nepal providing apprenticeship training.
  • Cottage and Small-scale Industry Development Board (CSIDB): It is located at Tripureshwor, Kathmandu. It was established under Development Committee Act, 2013. Its functions and responsibilities are same as that of CSID.
  • Balaju School of Engineering and Technology: It was established by the technical and financial support of Swiss Government in 1962. At present, this school is providing TSLC courses on three major subjects; Mechanical, Electrical and Sanitation and Diploma Level course in Electrical Engineering.

  • Education is the basic component of a human life.
  • Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) was established in 1989 AD (2045 BS).
  • The main vision of CTEVT is to develop manpower for the national prosperity.
  • There are all total 418 technical schools in Nepal.
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Very Short Questions

Training is the process of learning skills  and behaviors to perform the task efficiently .

The training which is done in order to develop professional skill is known as vocational training. It is longer in time in comparison to general training. This type of training is related to the development of technical skills like software, hydropower, mechanism, driving, plumbing, etc. It helps to create job opportunities.

The basic type of training usually for a short period of time is known as a general training.

Education is the process of importing knowledge, skill and judgment.

One of the vocational training institutes is Butwal Technical Institute.

Butwal Technical Institute (BTI): It is located at Butwal of Rupendehi district and was established in 2020 B.S. The main objective of BTI is to provide training required for manpower industries through apprenticeship and other practical models of training with job experiences. It provides vocational training in varieties of technical subjects like medicine, electricity, plumbing, civil, etc. It is the only institute providing apprenticeship training.

The areas of TSLC programs are:

  1. Agriculture: JTA (Animal Science and Plant Science)
  2. Engineering (Sub-overseer): Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Automobile, Junior Computer Technician, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Sanitary
  3. Health: CMA, ANM, AAHW, Dental Hygienist, Lab Assistant

0%
  • Employment is a source of _______ for individuals and families.

    Royalty
    profit
    means
    income
  • The short type of training is called __________ .

    general training
    vocational training
    safety training
    refresher training
  • CTEVT stands for ________________.

    Council for Technical Educational and Vocational Training
    Communication of Technical Education and Vocational Training
    Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training
    Council of Technological Education and Vocational Training
  • When was Butwal Technical Institute established?

    2040 BS
    2020 BS
    2030 BS
    2025 BS
  • DAT stands for__________________.

    Directorate of Architecture Training
    Directorate of Agriculture Technology
    Department of Agriculture Training
    Directorate of Agriculture Training
  • DAT is located at _____ .

    Sanepa, Balkhu
    Harihar Bhawan, Pulchowk
    Sanothimi, Bhaktapur
    National Hall, Biratnagar
  • How many CSID district offices are there in Terai and valley?

    27
    30
    28
    25
  • When was CTEVT established?

    1989 AD
    1991 AD
    1990 AD
    1988 AD
  • Vocational education training programs are short duration ranging from ______ to __________ hours.

    40 to 1500
    42 to 1500
    39 to 1500
    39 to 2000 
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Bipin Bhandari

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