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Animal Husbandry

Animals
Source:nepalkanoon.com
Fig: Animals

Animal husbandry means raising livestock. Varieties of animals are farmed under animal husbandry like goat, sheep, cow, buffalo, pig, fish, bee, etc. Animal husbandry helps to improve new breeds of animals.

Importance of Animal Husbandry

  • It is a good source of income.
  • It ensures food security where vegetables are not possible.
  • The dung and shit of animals can be the source of energy as biogas.
  • It improves the new breeds of animals.
  • It is a source of industrial raw materials.

Goat, Sheep and Chyangra

Goat, sheep, and chyangra are popular in Nepal. Chyangra is also known as mountain goat. These are the domestic animals and these animals are good sources of income. We can farm these animals and earn money. Chyangras can survive in extreme cold temperatures whereas others cannot. They are mainly reared for meat production. Their meat is rich in proteins and minerals. Their production depends on types of breeding and overall management of a farm.

Balanced Diet and Pasture Management

Pasture and grazing
Source:tributefarms.com
Fig: Pasture and grazing

A balanced diet means providing all the nutrients required. The animals also need a balanced diet like humans. A balanced diet includes a variety of nutritions like vitamins, proteins, minerals, etc. Goats and sheep eat several roughages. They mostly depend on pasture land for food. Among concentrates, we can prepare either readymade feed or different kinds of grains, rice bran as food for sheep, goat and chyangra. But, we must be sure of a balanced diet so that the development and growth will not be harmed.

Preparation of Balanced Diet from Local Materials

While preparing foods for sheep and goat, just normal food isn't enough. We must include some of the nutrients for diet which are as follows:

  • Carbohydrates and Fats: The main source of carbohydrate is rice, maize, barley, wheat bran and finger millet.
  • Proteins:The main sources of proteins are soybean, mustard seeds, milk byproducts and all kinds of leguminous crops like cowpeas, grams, lentils, peas, etc.
  • Minerals: The main sources of minerals are common salt, bone meal, oyster cells, and readymade mineral mixtures. Calcium and phosphorous are required in a large quantity.
  • Vitamins: Vitamins can be obtained from vegetables and green grass. And, other vitamins are found in ingredients.
  • Water: Fresh water should be provided as much as they need.

To prepare a balanced diet, an example of materials and their proportion is as follows:

Maize

Barley

Rough Wheat

Soybean cake

Mineral mixture

Salt

37 part

37 part

15 part

9 part

1 part

1 part

Life Cycle and Breeding

A male goat emits typical odor during urination to attract female goat for mating. After 150 days of mating, the female goat gives birth to 1 or 2 kids. They drink milk from their mother’s udder up to 6 months. A goat becomes young from 3 to 15 months depending on their growth and development. At the delivery time, swollen symptoms appear around the hip and organ, breathing is high, the goat becomes restless and looks for her keeper.

Production Management

Sheep and goats are farmed mainly for milk, wool, and meat. Some people are allergic to cow’s milk. Those people can drink goat's milk. Their meat is of high quality and expensive. Their bodies are covered with wool and it varies upon the sheep and goats. Their wool is cut twice a year and is used for knitting clothes.

But, the production of goats and sheep are unknown due to no recording system. For production management, it is a must to keep the ledger up to date of the following aspects:

  • The records of capital goods
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Meat, milk and wool production report
  • Growth record of sheep, goats, and chyangra
  • Stock report of those animals

Prevention and Control of Diseases and Parasites

Peste des Petits Ruminants (P.P.R): This disease is caused by bacteria and its symptoms are fever, red eyes, running nose, etc. The animal dies within 5-10 days after its infection. Vaccination in two years may prevent it.

Gastroenteritis: It is a virus which makes animal weak, thin and suffers indigestion. We can use medicine like Neblone and Salpha drug for its treatment.

Bloat or Acidosis: It is simply caused by poor feeding habits. The excess gas gets accumulated in the stomach, which causees difficulty in respiration and stomach pain. Inject Avil injection for quick relief.

Footrot: It infects inside the hard shell of the hoof of the leg. It causes inflamed heels.

Pneumonia: It is a bacterial disease caused in a cold weather. It might cause death within a few days if it is not cured in time. The symptoms are rapid breathing, discharge from eyes, no running nose and cough. We can cure this disease by an antibiotic namely streptomycin.

  • Chyangra is also known as a mountain goat.
  • These animals are a good source of income. 
  • While preparing food for sheep and goat, just normal food isn't enough. The food must contain some nutrients as well.
.

Very Short Questions

Nutrients can be classified into six categories- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. The first two are required for energy and later four are required for growth, maintenance, and vitality. Providing such nutrients are known as a balanced diet of sheep and goats.

While feeding sheep and goats, all kinds of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water) should be considered.

 

The mixture is fed along with water. Wheat, maize, millet, grass, foliage, etc. can be a very good source of food for the animals. These foods are the good sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Pulse can be made into powder and fed as a food source of proteins. Vitamins are available from green grasses. Plenty of water is given for the growth and survival of the animals.

Sheep and goats mainly depend on pasture land. Among concentrates, we can prepare either readymade or different kinds of grains, rice bran etc. as food for sheep and goats. Sheep and goats eat several roughages. Pasteurization is a natural source of food for sheep and goats but sometimes there may be harmful plants which they may eat while pasturing. We must think about their hygiene and pasture land.

Production management of sheep and goats can be done by keeping up to date records of the following aspects:

  • Record of capital goods
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Meat, milk and wool production report
  • Growth record of sheep and goats
  • Stock report of those animals

 

We can control the diseases of sheep and goats by vaccinating on time, providing medicines according to their disease, and paying attention to the kinds of problems they are getting. Caring about their health and managing proper hygienic pasture and environment are also important.

The importances of animal husbandry for human society are as follows:

  • It is a good source of income.
  • It ensures food security where vegetables are not possible.
  • The dung and shit of animals can be the source of energy as biogas.
  • It improves the new breed of animals.
  • It is the source of industrial raw materials.

  1. The meat of sheep and goat is called mutton.
  2. The right amount of fats and carbohydrates is required in food for energy.
  3. Sheep and goats give birth to young kids in  heat period after mating.
  4. Gastroenteritis disease can be controlled from medicine namely neblone and salpha drugs.

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  • What is the main purpose of farming goats and sheep?

    wool
    none of them
    milk
    meat
  • How many types of breeds are available in Nepal?

    2
    3
    5
    4
  • What are the nutrients required for the growth?

    all of the above
    proteins
    minerals
    water
  • Which nutrient is  required for the energy?

    minerals
    proteins
    vitamins
    carbohydrates
  • Which one is the source of carbohydrates and fats?

    gram
    soybean
    maize
    mustard seeds
  • What is meant by P.P.R.?

    peste des petits ruminants
    peste des parasites ruminants
    parasite des petits ruminants
    peste bacteria petits ruminants
  • After ______ days, a goat give birth to young ones after mating with a male goat.

    150
    180
    120
    210
  • As two principal aspects of production are marketing and maintaining the records, on what basis the records should be maintained?

    annual
    all of above
    daily
    monthly
  • Pneumonia is caused due to_______.

    warm water
    air change
    weather change
    cold water
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Deepa gaire

Can you tel me the important of them in brief because it's doesn't help me to solve my problem


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