Animal husbandry means raising livestock. Varieties of animals are farmed under animal husbandry like goat, sheep, cow, buffalo, pig, fish, bee, etc. Animal husbandry helps to improve new breeds of animals.
Goat, sheep, and chyangra are popular in Nepal. Chyangra is also known as mountain goat. These are the domestic animals and these animals are good sources of income. We can farm these animals and earn money. Chyangras can survive in extreme cold temperatures whereas others cannot. They are mainly reared for meat production. Their meat is rich in proteins and minerals. Their production depends on types of breeding and overall management of a farm.
A balanced diet means providing all the nutrients required. The animals also need a balanced diet like humans. A balanced diet includes a variety of nutritions like vitamins, proteins, minerals, etc. Goats and sheep eat several roughages. They mostly depend on pasture land for food. Among concentrates, we can prepare either readymade feed or different kinds of grains, rice bran as food for sheep, goat and chyangra. But, we must be sure of a balanced diet so that the development and growth will not be harmed.
While preparing foods for sheep and goat, just normal food isn't enough. We must include some of the nutrients for diet which are as follows:
To prepare a balanced diet, an example of materials and their proportion is as follows:
A male goat emits typical odor during urination to attract female goat for mating. After 150 days of mating, the female goat gives birth to 1 or 2 kids. They drink milk from their mother’s udder up to 6 months. A goat becomes young from 3 to 15 months depending on their growth and development. At the delivery time, swollen symptoms appear around the hip and organ, breathing is high, the goat becomes restless and looks for her keeper.
Sheep and goats are farmed mainly for milk, wool, and meat. Some people are allergic to cow’s milk. Those people can drink goat's milk. Their meat is of high quality and expensive. Their bodies are covered with wool and it varies upon the sheep and goats. Their wool is cut twice a year and is used for knitting clothes.
But, the production of goats and sheep are unknown due to no recording system. For production management, it is a must to keep the ledger up to date of the following aspects:
Peste des Petits Ruminants (P.P.R): This disease is caused by bacteria and its symptoms are fever, red eyes, running nose, etc. The animal dies within 5-10 days after its infection. Vaccination in two years may prevent it.
Gastroenteritis: It is a virus which makes animal weak, thin and suffers indigestion. We can use medicine like Neblone and Salpha drug for its treatment.
Bloat or Acidosis: It is simply caused by poor feeding habits. The excess gas gets accumulated in the stomach, which causees difficulty in respiration and stomach pain. Inject Avil injection for quick relief.
Footrot: It infects inside the hard shell of the hoof of the leg. It causes inflamed heels.
Pneumonia: It is a bacterial disease caused in a cold weather. It might cause death within a few days if it is not cured in time. The symptoms are rapid breathing, discharge from eyes, no running nose and cough. We can cure this disease by an antibiotic namely streptomycin.
Nutrients can be classified into six categories- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. The first two are required for energy and later four are required for growth, maintenance, and vitality. Providing such nutrients are known as a balanced diet of sheep and goats.
While feeding sheep and goats, all kinds of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water) should be considered.
The mixture is fed along with water. Wheat, maize, millet, grass, foliage, etc. can be a very good source of food for the animals. These foods are the good sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Pulse can be made into powder and fed as a food source of proteins. Vitamins are available from green grasses. Plenty of water is given for the growth and survival of the animals.
Sheep and goats mainly depend on pasture land. Among concentrates, we can prepare either readymade or different kinds of grains, rice bran etc. as food for sheep and goats. Sheep and goats eat several roughages. Pasteurization is a natural source of food for sheep and goats but sometimes there may be harmful plants which they may eat while pasturing. We must think about their hygiene and pasture land.
Production management of sheep and goats can be done by keeping up to date records of the following aspects:
We can control the diseases of sheep and goats by vaccinating on time, providing medicines according to their disease, and paying attention to the kinds of problems they are getting. Caring about their health and managing proper hygienic pasture and environment are also important.
The importances of animal husbandry for human society are as follows:
What is the main purpose of farming goats and sheep?
How many types of breeds are available in Nepal?
What are the nutrients required for the growth?
Which nutrient is required for the energy?
Which one is the source of carbohydrates and fats?
What is meant by P.P.R.?
After ______ days, a goat give birth to young ones after mating with a male goat.
As two principal aspects of production are marketing and maintaining the records, on what basis the records should be maintained?