Videos Related with Fishery

Note on Fishery

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

Introduction

Fish is a very rich source of protein. In Nepal, both local and exotic species of fish are available. Fishes are naturally available from rivers, ponds, seas, and wetlands. For fish farming, a pond is necessary.

Fishery product
Source:www.mmbiztoday.com
Fig: Fishery Product

Feeding Management of Fish

Fish need nutrients. Fish farming also requires a balanced diet that includes carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Fish are fed differently than another animals. Food for fish is supplied in the following ways:

Application of manure in the fish pond

Manure of pigs, chickens and ducks increase production rather than the manure of cows and goats. There are many ways to apply manure such as:

  1. Before stocking fingerlings in the pond: The pond is drained and cleaned after harvesting fish. Lime is applied and tilled, filled with half water and manure is spread uniformly about two weeks before stocking the fingerlings.
  2. During growing period of fish: Manure is either filled in a basket or sack and placed on one or more sides of the pond. Manure is released weekly as required. If the temperature is less than 18oC, the manure application should be discontinued.
  3. By integrated farming of fish: Integrated fish farming with ducks and pigs may directly supply the fresh manure to the pond.
    fishfarming
    Sourcespachtle.cz
    Fig: Fish Farming

There are some special advantages of organic manure over fertilizers, which are:

  • Helps to reduce seepage in ponds.
  • Contains trace minerals and vitamins required for fish.
  • Improves the quality of soil for the growth of planktons.
  • Some of the ingredients can be directly consumed by fish.

Feeding readymade feed: Readymade feeds are important for fish farming. It supplies balanced nutrition to the farmed fish. Feed are put in a flat feeder, possibly a clay pot, suspended with a strong rope and placed at one or more places in the pond. Feed is required only to supplement a balanced diet and to administer medicines.

Preparation of Balance Diet from Local Materials

Fish can find natural food by themselves under ponds. Daily, maximum 5% of their body weight is supplemented from outer sources. We can buy readymade feed from the market or prepare ourselves from rice bran, soya cakes, maize, flour, etc. While making a balanced diet for fish, we must include nutritious foods. Sources of nutritions include:

Carbohydrates and Fat: Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. The main sources of carbohydratesarerice, maize, barley, and wheat.

Minerals: Minerals are important for the body to stay healthy. The sources of minerals are common salt, bone meal, oyster cells, and readymade mineral mixtures. Calcium and phosphorous are required in a large quantity.

Proteins: Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. The main sources of proteinsare soybean, mustard seeds, leguminous crops like cowpeas, grams, lentils, peas etc.

Vitamins: Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. Vitamins are found in both plants and animals. Most of them are found in feed ingredients.

Lifecycle and Reproduction Management

life cycle of fish
Source:www.pinterest.com
Fig: Lifecycle of fish

Reproduction depends on fish. Every fish do not have same reproduction system. The length time also varies depending on the type of fish. The lifecycle of fish depends on the species. In general, fish progress through the following cycle stages:

Eggs: Fertilized eggs develop into fish. Due to some adverse environmental conditions, disease and predators, most eggs do not survive to maturity.

Larval fish: Larval fish live with a yolk sac attached to their bodies.

Fry: When the yolks are fully absorbed, the young fish are called fry during their first month. It is ready to eat on its own.

Juvenile: After fry starts developing from fry to mature adult and gains reproductive capacity, it is called a juvenile. Most of them do not survive.

Adult: This is fully developed and sexually active stage. Fish start to reproduce.

Spawning: Female fish release eggs into the stagnant water and male fish fertilize eggs by releasing milt. Some fish spawn many times in fixed season each year while other spawns only once and then die.

Production Management

Fish contains high nutritional value and is a very good source of fats. It is also used as decoration in an aquarium. We can manage this by collecting following data of fish keeping up to date:

  • Capital goods record
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Fish production records
  • Growth record of fish
  • Pond preparation cost

Diseases of Fish

Fish gets diseases due to several reasons like infection, metazoan, unicellular parasites. Some of the most common diseases are as follows:

Fin rot: A fish with fin rot will have ragged, frayed fins. Both the fins and the tail may be affected. If left untreated, the fins will eventually erode away and the infection will spread to the body of the fish. It is brought on by poor water conditions, injuries or poor diets.

Gyrodactylus
Source:aroundthefishbowl.wordpress.com
Fig: Gyrodactylus

Gyrodactylus: It is a parasitic infection. It can be treated by adding sulfuric acid in a small amount of fish. The symptoms are sluggishness, fin-drop, flashing color etc.

Ulcers: An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane. A major symptom is theloss of appetite. We must keep the ponds clean for its prevention. Apply topical medication to the affected area of fish for treatment.

Trichodina: Trichodina is a genus of ciliate protists. Red patches and cloudy appearance on skull and gills are seen. It can be controlled through salt treatment.

Black spot: Small dark spots are seen in the fin and the body. It is also a parasitic infection.

Ichtyophthirirus: Main symptoms are scratching on head and white spots on the whole body, cloudiness on eyes and fins are slow. It can be controlled through salt treatment. The pond should be clean for prevention.

Proper sanitation, feeding, and salt treatment are good practices for the prevention of fish diseases.

  • Fish is a very rich source of proteins.
  • Fish can find natural food by themselves.
  • Manure of pigs, chickens and ducks increase the production of  fish rather than the manure of cows and goats.
  • Every fish do not have the same reproduction system.
  • Fish contains high nutritional value and is a very good source of good fat.
  • Proper sanitation, feeding, and salt treatment are good practices for the prevention of fish diseases. 
.

Very Short Questions

Nutrients can be classified into six categories- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. The first two are required for energy and later four are required for growth, maintenance, and vitality. Providing such nutrients are known as a balanced diet of fishery.

While feeding fish, all kinds of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water) should be considered.

The production management of fish can be done by keeping up to date records of the following aspects:

  • Record of capital goods
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Fish production report
  • Growth record of the fish
  • Pond preparation cost

Ulcers:

Bacterial ulcers are very common problems in fish and seem to strike ornamental patches. An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane. A major symptom is a loss of appetite. We should keep the ponds clean for their prevention. Also, we should apply topical medication to the affected areas of fish for the treatment.

 

The symptoms of Gyrodactylus are sluggishness, fin-drop, flashing color etc.

The advantages of organic manure over fertilizers are:

  • Helps to reduce seepage in ponds.
  • Contains trace minerals and vitamins required for fish.
  • Improves the quality of soil for the growth of planktons.
  • Some of the ingredients can be directly consumed by fish.

0%
  • Fish is a very rich source of _____ .

    proteins
    carbohydrates
    minerals
    fats
  • How many types of breeds are available in Nepal?

    3
    2
    5
    4
  • What is the percentage of production cost spent in managing food?

    40%
    20%
    more than 50%
    30%
  • What should be the temperature of water for fish farming?

    more than 18C
    less than 12C
    less than 28C
    less than 18C
  • What is the recommended rate of manure?

    20 Kg/100m2/week
    5 Kg/1000m2/week
    10 Kg/100m2/week
    5 Kg/100m2/week
  • What is the recommended rate of lime?

    30 Kg per 100m2
    20 Kg per 100m2
    10 Kg per 100m2
    20 Kg per 10m2
  • In which stage, fish start eating by its own?

    Fry
    Juvenile
    Larva
    Spawning
  • Which disease is not caused in fish?

    anthrax
    ulcers
    gyrodactylus
    fin rot
  • Which one is not a symptom of ulcers?

    none of them
    loss of appetite
    dark spots
    sluggishness
  • Which one is not the source of minerals?

    Common salt
    Phosphorous
    Gram
    Calcium
  • You scored /10


    Take test again

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report
Jaldeep sapkota

Controlling measure of blackspot diseases


You must login to reply