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Note on Poultry Farming

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Introduction

Poultry production is common in Nepal. It is estimated that nearly 50% of meat sector is contributed by chicken. It is also grown at different scales from micro enterprise to a large scale enterprise. Most of the people in the villages are engaged in the production. It is very popular in Nepal.

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Balanced Diet and Feeding Management

Fig:Feeding
Fig: Feeding

The balanced diet means providing all types of nutrients required for chickens. It is classified into six categories- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. Carbohydrates and fats are necessary for the energy and other are required for the growth, maintenance and vitality of chicken. This can be assumed from varieties of food ingredients derived from plant and animal sources.

Chickens eat different things like snakes, earthworms, toads and insects. They also eat food like vegetables, fruits, flowers and grass. They eat all kinds of grains and seeds. But, in apoultry farm, they eat readymade food.

The feed should contain the proper amount of vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates and water for the growth and proper development of chicken. Feeding management is a very important activity in commercial poultry farming. For the poultry farming, 70% of investment is required for poultry farming feed. Proper feeding is required for the proper development of the farming. Failure and success depend on the proper feeding. While doing this farming, they should take care of proper feeding and the feed should not be wasted due to the poor packing of sacks, poor handling of feed, carelessness in transportation, poor storage, excess stock and so on.

Preparation of Balanced Diet for Local Materials:

Chickens need all kinds of nutrients in poultry feed to make it balanced, which is known as balanced diet for chicken.

Locally available sources of nutrients are as follows:

  • Carbohydrates and Fats: The main source of carbohydrates is rice, maize, barley, and wheat.
  • Proteins: The main source of proteins are cakes of peanut, soybean, mustard seeds, milk byproducts and all kinds of leguminous crops like cowpeas, grams, lentils, peas etc.
  • Minerals: The sources of minerals are common salt, bone meal, oyster cells, and readymade mineral mixtures. Calcium and phosphorous is required in a large quantity.
  • Vitamins: Vitamins can be obtained from vegetables and green grass. And, other vitamins are found in ingredients.
  • Water: Fresh water should be provided as much as they need.

Most of the people feed water separately and vitamins get missed. We should prepare balanced diet with the particular selection of food sources and mixing it during the feeding period.

Life Cycle and Breeding

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The life cycle of chicken begins with eggs. A hen lays about one egg per day. But, it stops laying eggs in winter until spring. The eggs should be fertile for breeding. Fertilized eggs are collected and set to brooding with clean and dry litter. Mother hen then keeps on embracing the eggs with wings to keep them warm, which is called incubation. The yolk inside the egg supplies the food to the embryo and it grows to become a chick. When a chick is grown for 21 days and strong enough it open its shell of the egg and comes out. This process is called hatching. A female chick is called a hen and a male is called rooster.

But, in this modern day poultry farming, incubation, and hatching of fertile eggs are obtained from breeding stocks and set to the incubator for 18 days and then to hatching machine for 3 days.



Production Management

In poultry farming, millions of eggs are consumed daily and millions of chickens are chopped daily for meat supply. Because of high demand and inadequate supply, management is misbehaved. Appropriate maintenance of financial record is important. The entire ledger related to the following aspects should be up to date:

  • The record of capital goods
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Eggs and meat production records
  • Feed purchase and consumption records
  • Growth records of the birds

Prevention and Control of Diseases and Parasites

Bird Flu: Bird flu is a viral infection spread from the bird. The red spot appears on the body and yellow stool is discharged. This can also be transmitted to human so we must be careful. If symptoms of this disease are observed in any place, mass killing of birds are legally required.

Habitual Vices: Eating the flesh, eating eggs and hiding eggs are the habitual vices of poultry birds. Such habits are formed due to inappropriate spacing and wrong feeding. We have to maintain proper balance to minimize these habits.

New Castle Disease: It is a viral disease. The symptoms include respiratory problems, neck and body twisting, green stool, high fever, etc. Treatment of this disease is impossible. After infection, the whole stock should be killed and buried and the house must be disinfected.

Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD): It is also a viral disease. Its symptoms are loss of immunity, drowsiness, stool with yellow mucus, loss of appetite and loss of balance. Birds should be vaccinated timely. Feeding electrolyte water can cure the disease.

Coccidiosis: It is caused by some species of protozoa and it is widely spreading disease in poultry. Common symptoms are loss of appetite, dropping of tail and feathers, closing eyes and loose stool with blood.

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Timely vaccination, de-breaking, hygienic feeding, appropriate housing system and preventing the contamination of wild birds and animals might minimize the chances of occurrence of any kinds of diseases.

  • Nearly 50% of meat sector is contributed by chicken. 
  • The life cycle of chicken begins with eggs.
  • A female chick is called hen and a male is called a rooster.
  • In poultry farming, millions of eggs are consumed daily and millions of chicken are chopped daily for meat supply.
  • Feed electrolyte water to cure the diseases.
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Very Short Questions

We can control poultry diseases by vaccinating on time, providing medicines according to the disease, and paying attention to the kind of problems they are getting. Also, caring about their health and managing proper hygiene, pasture and environment are important.

Production management of poultry birds can be done by keeping up to date records of the following aspects:

  • The record of capital goods
  • Income and expenditure records
  • Meat and egg production records
  • Feed and medicines purchase and consumption records
  • Growth record of the birds

The feed should contain the proper amount of vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates and water for the growth and proper development of chickens. Feeding management is a very important activity in commercial poultry farming. For the poultry farming, 70% of investment is required for poultry farming feed. Proper feeding is required for the proper development of the farming.

In readymade feed, a vitamin-mineral premix is added into all kinds of feed. Particular selection and the combination of food sources should be made out of the nutrients to prepare balanced feeding. We can add the local materials like maize, wheat, bran etc.

While feeding poultry birds, all kinds of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water) are to be considered.

Nutrients can be classified into six categories- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. The first two are required for energy and the later four are required for growth, maintenance, and vitality. Providing such nutrients is known as a balanced diet of poultry birds.

It is estimated that nearly 50% of meat sector is contributed by chickens.

New Castle Disease is a viral disease. The symptoms are respiratory problems, neck and body twisting, green stool and high fever, etc. Treatment of this disease is impossible. After infection, the whole stock should be killed and buried and the house must be disinfected.

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  • What is the percentage of the supply of chicken in Nepal?

    0%
    10%
    20%
    more than 50%
  • What is a male chicken called?

    both
    rooster
    none of them
    hen
  • What does IBD stand for?

    Internal Bursal Disease
    Infectious Bursal Disease
    Infectious Brother Disease
  • How to prevent a chicken from Bird Flu?

    supply of pure water
    use of capsuls
    vaccination
    control in feeding
  • What are the symptoms of coccidiosis?

    none of them
    neck and body twisting
    respiratory problems
    red spots appear in the body
  • As two principal aspects of production are marketing and maintaining the records, on what basis the records should be maintained?

    daily
    monthly
    all of above
    annual
  • Hens lay about _______ egg a day.

    2
    4
    3
    1
  • What is the life period of a chicken?

    4yrs
    6 yrs
    5 yrs
    3 yrs
  • What is the main purpose of poultry farming?

    egg and meat production
    milk
    woll
    none of them
  • Which nutrition  is required for the energy?

    vitamins
    minerals
    proteins
    carbohydrates
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DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

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Ashwini

Please mention the differences between local poultry farming and commercial poultry farming.


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