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Note on Fruit Farming

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Introduction

A specialized branch of agriculture which includes vegetable farming, fruit farming and floriculture is known as horticulture. In this lesson, we are going to learn about the importance of horticulture and its role in the economic development of Nepal.

Nursery and its Importance

Nursery
Source:www.echters.com
Fig: Nursery

A place where young plants are produced through different ways is called a nursery. The main work of nursery is to supply young plants and seeds for cultivation purpose for both fruits and vegetables. A nursery might be big or small depending on the types of plants one wish to grow. Mostly small kinds of nursery are established for the household purposes which has a limited space.

A nursery is important in different ways. Some of its importances are listed below:

  • Plant get proper and special attention and grow with better care.
  • Appropriate environment for germination of seeds.
  • Nursery is also very useful for the purpose of vegetative propagation.
  • Transplants will be healthy and stronger.

The nursery is one of the affordable businesses which can be started by a middle-class family. This is a profitable business and also provides employment opportunities. This business can be started in the limited or small land with a small amount of money.

Identification of Local and Improved Varieties of Fruits

Although the production capacity is low, the local varieties can best survive in local environment conditions. Local varieties are traditionally prevailing varieties. There have been recently developed imported varieties. Their production capacity is high and they are less tolerant to the local environmental conditions. Altitude variation in Nepal ranges from 60 m to 8848 m. Due to the wide range of altitude, we have different climatic conditions. Fruits are grown here mostly for domestic consumption.

Some of the varieties of apple and mango are described below:

Apple

This fruit can be grown throughout mid and high mountainous area from Central to the Far Western Development Region of Nepal. The dry and semi-dry climate is more suitable for growing apple. The main apple varieties grown in the extremely cold climate are Red Delicious, Royal Delicious, Golden Delicious, Golden Spur etc. The species suitable for average cold climate are Red June, Cox Orange, Pippin and the species grown in mild cold climate are Anna, Vered, Tropical Beauty etc.

Mango

Mango Farming
Source:agrifarming.in
Fig: Mango Farming

One of most common fruits found in Nepal is mango. It is mostly found in the Terai region where the weather is warm and suitable for its growth. Some of the famous kinds of mangoes are Gopal Bhog, Bombay, Culcuttia, Kali, etc.

Prevention of Fruits

Fruits become damaged due to weather changes. Different fruits have to be prevented by using different kinds of techniques. Some of the techniques are mentioned below:

  • Solar drying of fruits
  • Refrigeration of fruits
  • Storage of fruits in cold places
  • Making different kinds of products like jam, jelly, candy, canning, wine etc. that helps in the utilization and preservation of fruits.
  • Using the plants that are strong that can resist the pest.
  • Using other biological species in order to control the pests.

Time of Harvesting

Harvesting fruit in time has great values. Different fruits have different times of harvesting. Fruits have to be harvested at appropriate times. There are certain factors that can be observed in order to know the appropriate time. For example, the fruits which turn green to yellow are sour to sweet. We can also experience that kind of changes in our surrounding areas.

Harvesting Method

Fruits should be harvested in a safe way. One of the safe ways of harvesting fruits is hand picking, which is followed by several techniques such as the use of secateurs, knife, ladder, etc. Sometimes wild and berry types of fruits are also harvested by beating with sticks and shaking branches of trees. A safe method of harvesting is pole harvester. This can be used in picking up fruits from trees.

Pole Harvester
It is prepared with the help of simple local material which consists of a 2-3 m size of adry bamboo pole with about 2.5 cm diameter, a basket or a sack with about 30 cm wide mouth which can be made like a basket with a piece of black pipe or flexible bamboo stick and a cycle. We can use this pole harvester for those fruits which we cannot catch or access directly or difficult to take.

Packaging, Storage and Transportation of Fruits

Those fruits which have been harvested are packed in a bag and placed in appropriate storing kits and sent to the market. To transport to a distant market, fruits are packaged in corrugated paper boxes or wooden box placing some insulating materials like dry leaves, wooden chips or tissue papers. But, before packing of goods, firstly fruits are graded generally in four lots; large, medium, small and damaged. Depending on the type of fruit crops and economy required, wooden boxes, bulk bins are some of the packagings and holding materials used during the transportation of fruits from the field to the market.

Control of Insects and Plant Protection and Diseases

Fruits have to be protected in their every growing stage. They have to be protected from adverse environment factors and pests from the very young age. Afterward, the plants become strong and matured for the local environment. Fruits have to be protected from environment conditions like wind, rain, etc.

Fruits should be protected from the adverse weather, from diseases and from the insects which may destroy the whole plan. To prevent from those kinds of diseases and insects, we should use the bio-friendly chemicals to plants which can prevent plants and also do not harm the consumers of those fruits. Some of the conventional methods are listed below:

  • Awareness program should to given to farmers about the bio-friendly chemicals.
  • Using diseases and insects resistant varieties of fruit crops.
  • Practicing crop rotation and fine cultivation practices.
  • Removing the infected parts of the plant and burning or burying those parts.
  • Use natural predator like ladybirds, beetles etc. that feed on aphid, bugs, and other insects.

  • A specialized branch of agriculture which includes vegetable farming, fruit farming and floriculture is known as horticulture. 
  • A place where young plants are being produced through different ways is called a nursery.
  • The main work of nursery is to supply young plants and seeds for cultivation purposes for both fruits and vegetables. 
  • Harvesting fruit in time has great values.
.

Very Short Questions

The following are the importances of a nursery:

  • A plant gets proper and special attention and helps to grow with better care.
  • An appropriate environment for germination of seed.
  • The nursery is also very much useful for purpose of vegetation propagation.
  • The transplant will be healthy and stronger.

Fruits become damaged due to weather changes. Different fruits have to be prevented by using different kinds of techniques. Some of the ways by which we can prevent fruits from being rotten are discussed below:

  • Solar drying of fruits
  • Refrigeration of fruits
  • Storage of fruits in cold places
  • Preparation of different kinds of products like jam, jelly, candy, canning, wine etc.
  • Using the plants that are strong and can resist the pests.
  • Using other biological species in order to control the pests.
  • Harvesting on time. 

The following are the ways to protect fruits from insects and diseases:

  • Awareness program should to given to the farmers about the bio-friendly chemicals which help farmers.
  • Using diseases and insects resistant varieties of fruit crops.

Fruits should be harvested in a safe way. One of the safe ways for harvesting the fruits is done by hand picking, which is followed by several techniques such as the use of secateurs, knife, ladder, etc. Sometimes wild and berry types of fruits are also harvested by beating with a stick and shaking branches of trees. A safe method of harvesting is pole harvester. This can be used in picking up fruits from trees.

Pole Harvester
It is prepared with the help of simple local materials which consist of a 2-3 m size of a dry bamboo pole with about 2.5 cm diameter and a basket or a sack with about 30 cm wide mouth which can make made like a basket with a piece of black pipe or flexible bamboo. We can use this pole harvester for those fruits which we cannot catch or access directly or difficult to take.

Those fruits which have been harvested are packaged in a bag and placed in appropriate storing kits and sent to the market. To transport to a distant market, fruits are packaged in corrugated paper boxes or wooden boxes placing some insulating materials like dry leaves, wooden chips or tissue papers. But, before packing of goods, firstly, packaged fruits are graded generally in four lots; large, medium, small and damaged. Depending on the types of fruit crops and economy required, wooden boxes, bulk bins are some of the packagings and holding materials used during the transportation of fruits from the field to the market.

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  • A specialized branch of agriculture which includes vegetable farming, fruit farming and floriculture  is known as ______. 

    floriculture
    culture farming
    horticulture
    caliber
  • A place where young plants are produced through different ways is a ______. 

    vegetable farming
    gardening
    market farming
    nursery
  • The main work of ______ is to supply young plants and seeds for cultivation purposes for both fruits and vegetables.

    vegetable farming
    gardening
    market farming
    nursery
  • Apple farming in Nepal started in ______.

    Inner Madesh Valley
    Nar Phu Valley
    Kali Gandaki Valley
    Dang Valley
  • The first commercial Apple farming in Nepal started at ______.

    Rajpur, Dang Deukhuri
    Pakhribas, Dhankuta
    Marpha, Mustang 
    Bhimdatta, Kanchanpur
  • Mango belongs to the family of ______.

    Passifloraceae
    Mangifera
    Cactaceae
    Anacardiaceae
  • Fruits become damaged mainly due to ______.

    dirt
    weather changes
    dust
    water
  • A safe method of harvesting is ______. 

    german harvester
    pole harvester
    combine harvester
    post harvester
  •  The main apple variety grown in the extreme cold areas is ______.

    Green delicious
    Red delicious
    Blue delicious
    Yellow delicious
  • Altitude variation in Nepal ranges from ______.

    30 m to 8845 m
    60 km to 8848 km
    30 km to 8845 km
    60 m to 8848 m
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Ashwini

Please mention the differences between commercial fruit farming and local fruit farming.


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