Many studies have been made on the different aspects of vegetable, their benefits and farming. In this lesson more techniques and tools about vegetable farmings are studied.
Different vegetable grows in a different environment. Some vegetables need warm temperature and some of them need cold temperature. The vegetables that can not adjust to all kind of temperature is the seasonal vegetable. For example, cauliflower only grows in a winter season. The seasonal vegetables is grown in the natural cycle of seasons when they are most suitable.
The vegetable which can be grown in any season using technology is an off-season vegetable. For example, onion can be grown anytime. The main advantage of off-season vegetables is to ensure food security during the scarce period to promote seasonal employment and to ensure high price for farmers.
That kind of fertilizer which are made from naturally occurring bi-products of plant and animal is known as the organic substance. It consists of plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and many other kinds of nutrients. Organic fertilizer increases the water-holding capacity of the soil. This kind of fertilizer is easy to prepare and very economic.
Whereas the chemical fertilizer is synthetically prepared to provide the vital nutrients necessary for the plant's growth. This kind of fertilizer consists of high amount of phosphorus and potassium which are prepared in big industries. Some of its examples are complex fertilizer, super phosphorus, urea etc. But these fertilizers damage natural soil and kill the micro-organism of the soil which is not good for the plants from the environmental perspective.
The procedure which has to be followed to prepare compost are listed and explained below:
Suitable place: For composting well-drained area is very much important which should be located in the back yard or close to cattle shed for avoiding the foul smell.
Collection of composting materials: Many kinds of organic materials are used for composting. Organic materials consist of dead plants, rotten vegetables, kitchen waste, animals litter, urine, sheet, etc. They might be available naturally.
Tools and equipment required: Tools and equipment are required depending on which method we are going to use. Some of the examples of these tools are compost bin or container, shovel, fork, etc
Selecting appropriate method: There are three types of composting method: pit method, piling method or bin method. Former two are good for large quantity production and the third is good for the small quantity.
Filling process: We should take care of the following aspects while filling up the materials.
Turning the compost and other cares: Here we need to see how moist the compost is. For timely decomposition, we have to turn the compost at least two times. Depending on the temperature, compost will be ready in few months. Watering must also be done in order to get better results.
Use of compost: Compost is used in organic farming. They are added to the field as per requirement. Apply the compost before the tillage operation. In enhances soil fertility.
Irrigation provides water to plant for survival and growth. Drip irrigation system is used for providing water to plant. Some of the significance of drip irrigation system are given below:
Considering the environment and season, there are different types of vegetables which can be divided into two groups:
Winter Season: In this season, vegetables requires cold, less humid condition and can sustain frost. Carrot, radish, cauliflower, garlic, etc are examples of this season vegetables.
Summer Season: In this season, vegetables requires warm, humid condition and can not sustain frost. Cucumber, pumpkin, sweet potato, lady's finger, etc are the examples of this season vegetables.
Vegetable Growing and Caring
Giving care to the vegetables are common for most of the plants. Allow the following steps for caring and growing the vegetables.
We should harvest in the proper time because it is the time of getting the reward of your labour. Any kind of delay on harvest may cause great loss of production. Vegetables must be stored under proper condition. Temperature and humidity are important factors for the proper condition of vegetables. Some specific vegetables have their ideal set of conditions at which they can be stored for the maximum length of time. 30oF - 36oF is the ideal temperature for the vegetation. It should be stored in cold storage.
Disease: Healthy vegetables are good to eat but growing healthy vegetables are difficult. A lot of care is needed for growing healthy vegetables. Vegetables may be harmed by the diseases. The basic cause of plant diseases is either due to fungi, bacteria, viruses or due to adverse physical environment.
Insects: Insects are another cause of the destruction of plants. Some of them are sucking types of insects like bugs. They suck different parts of plants and destroys the plants. Others are chewing type of insects pests like caterpillars. They eat leaves, fruits, and stem of plants.
Nowadays, farmers use pesticides to kill the germ on plants, which kills the germs but may remain on soil for a long period of time and affect the human health. So firstly we have to identify insects and diseases. Their control measures require more than one techniques. The majority of farmers are not conscious about vegetable safety. The following tools can be utilized to control pest:
Compost: After decomposition of organic matter compost is obtained. It is usually of plants origin but often includes some animal dung.
Slurry: Slurry is a kind slug usually of cow or buffalo dung obtained after the use in biogas plants. It adds moisture to the soil as it carries a lot of nutrients.
Sewage: Sewage is water-carried waste that is removed from the home as waste. But one must be sure that it is free from chemical before pouring to the field.
Worm-composting:Worm composting is a method of growing and using earthworms for increasing soil fertility. These worms help decompose the organic matters giving a very good quality of fertilizer known as vermin-composting.
Peat:Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or bogs. It is good for flower growing.
Green manure:Green manure is a term used to describe a specific plant or crop varieties that are grown and turned into the soil to improve its overall quality. They are grown in the field for about 40 days and turned under the soil as manure through cultivation.
Seasonal vegetables are those vegetables that can not adjust all kind of temperatures. The seasonal vegetables are grown in the natural cycle of seasons when they are most suitable. For example, cauliflower only grows in winter season.
The off seasonal vegetables are those vegetables which can be grown in any season using technology. The main advantage of off-season vegetables is that it ensures food scarcity. For example, tomato can be grown anytime using a tunnel or greenhouse technology or genetically modified seed.
Vegetables must be stored under proper conditions. It should be stored in cold storage. Temperature and humidity are important factors for the proper condition of vegetables. Some specific vegetables have their ideal set of conditions at which they can be stored most successfully for the maximum length of time. 30oF - 36oF is the ideal temperature for the vegetation.
Worm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich, dark, earth-smelling soil conditioner and a valuable soil amendment called vermin compost or worm compost. Worms eat food scraps, which become compost as they pass through the worm's body. The great advantage of worm composting is that this can be done indoors and outdoors.
Green manures are a great way to add organic nutrients to your soil. A green manure crop can be cut and be plowed into the soil or simply left on the ground for an extended period prior to tilling garden areas. They are grown in the field for about 40 days and turned under the soils as manure through cultivation.
Off-seasonal vegetables are grown in __________ .
Cauliflower is grown in ________ season.
Tomato is grown in ________ season.
Vegetables are to be stored in ___________ temperature.
______ humidity is ideal for vegetables.
_______ is/are organic manure.
_______ is/are chemical fertilizer.
Bio-pesticide ________ .
Plant diseases are caused due to __________.