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Note on Heat and temperature

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Heat

Heat is the sum of kinetic energy of all molecules of a substance. We use the expressions of hot and cold in our daily life on a number of occasions. We use heat for cooking food and keeping our body warm. We can get heat from coal, gas or electricity and sun. The degree of hotness and coldness of an object is called its temperature. Temperature is usually measured in the Celsius scale or Fahrenheit. The normal human body temperature is 98.40 Fahrenheit or 36.90 Celsius.

Temperature

Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold a body is. Temperature is usually measured in the Celsius scale or Fahrenheit scale. Temperature of the system can be defined as the property that determines whether or not the body is in thermal equilibrium with the neighbouring system. If the number of systems is in thermal equilibrium, this common property of the system can be represented by the simple numeric value called temperature.

Differences between Heat and Temperature

The differences between heat and temperature can be summarised in points as follows:

S.N Heat S.N Temperature
1. Heat is the form of energy that flows from the system to its surroundings. 1. Temperature is the result of heat.
2. Mass of the body affects the total heat. 2. Mass of body does not effect on temperature but depends on the molecular vibration of the body.
3. Heat is measured in joules or calories.

4.2 Joules = 1 calorie

3. Temperature is measured in degree Celsius or degree Fahrenheit or Kelvin Scale.
4. Heat is measured by using a Calorimeter. 4. Temperature is measured using the thermometer.

  • Heat is the sum of kinetic energy of all molecules of a substance.
  • We use heat for cooking food and keeping our body warm.
  • We can get heat from coal, gas or electricity and sun.
  • The degree of hotness and coldness of an object is called its temperature.
.

Very Short Questions


S.No.
Heat Temperature
1 Heat is a kinetic energy of all molecules of a substance. Temperature is the degree of hotness and coldness of a body.
2 Its SI unit is joule. Its SI unit is Kelvin.

 

The two common scales of the temperature are the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale.

The temperature of pure melting ice and that of steam on the Celsius scale is 0 degree centigrade to 100 degree centigrade. 

\begin{align*}\frac {(K-273)}{100}= \frac {(C-0)}{100} \\ \text {or,}\: (100 – 273) &= C \\ \text {or,}\: C &= -273 + 100 \\ \text {or,}\: C &= -173 \\ \text {Thus,}\: 100\:K &= -173^o\:C. \\ \end{align*}

\begin{align*} \frac {(C – 0)}{ 100} &= \frac {(K- 273)}{100} \\ \text {or,}\: 220 &= K-273 \\\text {or,}\: K &= 273 + 220 \\ K &= 493 \\ \text {Thus} \: 220^o\:C &= 493\: K \\ \end{align*}

\begin{align*}\frac {(C-0)}{100} &= \frac {(F-32)}{ 180} \\\text {or,}\: \frac {30}{10} &= \frac {(F-32)}{18} \\\text {or,}\: 30 \times 18 &= (F – 32) \times 10 \\ \text {or,}\: 540 &= 10F – 320 \\ \text {or,}\: 540 + 320 &= 10F \\ \text {or,} F = \frac {860}{10} \\ \text {Thus}\: 30^o\:C &= 86^o\:F \\ \end{align*}

One calorie is the amount of the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1°C.

$$ \frac {(C – 0)}{100} = \frac {(F – 32)} {180} = \frac {(K – 273)} {100}$$

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  • Unit of heat is ______.

    kilogram


    Joule


    degree


    meter


  • Device used for measuring temperature is ______.

    Speedometer


    Barometer


    Odometer


    Thermometer


  • The hotness on an object is determined by its ______.

    pressure


    none of these


    temperature


    heat


  • The temperature of boiling water cannot be measured by ______.

    laboratory thermometer


    both clinical and laboratory thermometer


    clinical thermometer


    All the answers are correct


  • A wooden spoon is dipped in a cup of ice cream , its other end ______.

    becomes cold


    becomes cold by the process of radiation


    becomes hot


    does not become cold


  • The boiling point of water is ______.

    0°C


    100°C


    357°C


    39 °C


  • Higher the temperature of the body ______ the kinetic energy of the molecules of that body.

    Lower


    none of these


    Same


    Higher


  • What happens to the object when heat energy is supplied to it?

    the molecules of the object moves faster
    the object gets hot
    all the answers are correct
    the molecules gets far apart from each other
  • The device that measures the degree of hotness and coldness of a body is called ______.

    calorimeter


    thermometer


    temperaturemeter


    lactometer


  • Which is the most commonly used liquid in the thermometer?

    mercury


    alcohol


    ethanol


    water


  • Process of division of temperature scale in thermometer is called ______.

    division of thermometer


    separation of scale in thermometer


    marking of thermometer


    calibration of thermometer


  • The advantages of using mercury in a thermometer is ______.

    it does not stick in the glass


    the calibration of mercury is easier as it expands uniformly at ordinary temperature


    all of the answers are right


    it can be used to measure wide range of temperature


  • Clinical thermometer was invented by ______.

    Graham Bell


    Sir Clifford Allbutt


    Sir Arthur King


    Sir Isaac Newton


  • Clinical thermometer was invented in _______.

    1860 A.D.


    1870 A.D.


    1850 A.D.


    1890 A.D.


  • The thermometer used to measure the maximum and minimum temperature of a day is called ______.

    maximum and minimum thermometer


    clinical thermometer


    day and night thermometer


    horse shoe thermometer


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What is one joule heat


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relatiionship betn heat and tempreature


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