Biomolecules are the molecules that occur naturally in living organisms. It includes macromolecules like protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids and also micro molecules like primary and secondary metabolites and natural products, Living cells consists of both organic and inorganic components which are of two kinds.
Organic compounds: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, and Nucleic acids.
Inorganic compound: Water, Minerals, and Salts.
Essential biomolecules which are compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen where hydrogen and oxygen occur in a ratio of 2: 1, so known as "hydrates of carbon". General formula = Cn( H2O )n They have free aldehyde or ketone group. Carbohydrate-containing aldehyde group ( -CHO- ) are called aldoses and ketone group ( - C = O ) are called ketoses.
Categories of Carbohydrates.
They are divided according to the complexity of chemical substances of which they are formed.
Simplest forms of carbohydrate.
Cannot be hydrolysed.
Highly soluble in water and sweet in taste.
Simple sugars are made up of polysaccharides compounds.All the carbon atoms have a hydroxyl group ( - OH -) attached except one where either an aldehyde ( - C = O ) group is attached.
Sugar with aldehyde group are aldoses and ketone group are ketoses.
Are also known as reducing sugar as free aldehyde and ketone group can reduce Cu++and Cu+ form.
A compound of 3 -7 carbon atoms.
Examples are glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Eg: Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde.
C4H8O4 (4 carbon atoms)
Eg: Erythrose, Threose.
C5H10O5 (5 carbon atoms)
Eg; Ribose, Deoxyribose.
C6H12O6 (6 carbon atoms)
Eg: Glucose, Fructose andGalactose.
C7H14O7(7 carbon atoms)
Glucose or aldohexose ( C6H12O6) is the most abundant monosaccharides with 6 carbon atoms and 5 hydroxyl group and one aldehyde group. It is white, crystalline, sweet testing, and water soluble.
Glucose open chain fructose
Contains 2 - 10 molecules of monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage.
On hydrolysis yields monosaccharides.
Simplest oligosaccharide is disaccharides.
General formula - C12O22O11.
Eg: sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
2 monosaccharide molecules
3 monosaccharide molecules
Simplest oligosaccharides formed of 2 molecules of monosaccharides that are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Gives monosaccharides on hydrolysis.
Water soluble and sweet in taste.
Reducing sugars are maltose and lactose, and non-reducing sugar is sucrose.