## Note on Solid Shapes and Their Nets

• Note
• Things to remember
• Exercise
• Quiz

### Solid-Shapes

Solid shapes are there dimensional. Solids can be described in various types. Some have a flat surface, some have curved surface and some have both flat and curved surface.

### Nets for Solid figure

A pattern that you can cut and fold to make a model of a solid shape are a net of a solid figure.

#### Cube and Cube net

A cube is an object which looks like solid box-shaped that has six identical square faces.

A cube is a special case of a cuboid in which all six faces are squares i. e. lenght = breadth = height

Let each side of cube be a units

Then, total surface area of a cube =2(lb+lh+bh)

= 2(a x a + a x a + a x a)

= 2(a2 +a2 +a2)

= 2 x 3a2

= 6a2

= 6(side)2

Similarly, lateral surface area of a cube = 2h(l +b)

= 2a(a +a)

= 2a x 2a

= 4a2

= 4(side)2

and volume of a cube = l x b x h

= a x a x a

= a3

= (side)3

#### Cuboid and Cuboid net

Cuboid is a solid figure bounded by six faces. A cuboid has 6 rectangular faces. The opposite rectangular plane surfaces are identical. So, it is also called rectangular prism.

The surface of a cuboid consists of six faces which are rectangular in shape. We can categories them in pairs of opposite faces as follows:

1. Front face ABGH and back face EFCD
2. Top face EFGH and bottom face ABCD
3. Side faces ADEH and BCFG
These opposite faces are congruent.

Let l, b and h represent the length, breadth and height of the cuboid respectively. To calculate the surface area of the cuboid we need to first calculate the area of each face and then add up all the areas to get the total surface area.

Total area of top and bottom surfaces is lb + lb =2lb

Total area in front and back surfaces is lh + lh = 2lh

Total area of two side surface is bh + bh =2bh

Thus, total surface area of cuboid = 2lb+2lh+2bh

=2(lb + lh +bh)

The lateral surface area of a cuboid includes a front face, back face, and two side faces.

Therefore, lateral surface is of a cuboid = 2lh + 2bh

= 2h(l+b)

Also, volume of a cuboid = l x b x h

#### Cylinder and Net of Cylinder

A cylinder has two circular plane surfaces, one at its base and another at its top. It has a curved surface in the middle.

To find the surface area of the cylinder, add the surface area of each end plus the surface area of the side. Each end is the circle so the surface area of each end isπr2, where r is the radius of the end.

There are two ends so their combined surface area is 2πr2. The surface area of the side is the circumference times the height or 2πr x h where r is the radius of the end and h is the height of the cylinder.

Therefore, curved surface area = 2πrh

and total surface area = 2πr2 = 2πrh = 2πr(r+h)

The base of a cylinder is a circle, with area πr2

The volume of a cylinder is, therefore,

πr2 x height = πr2

#### Cone and Net of Cone

A cone is a closed figure with a plane surface and a curved surface.

#### Pyramid and Its Net

There are three different solids that you can make with triangles. Mathematicians use the word tetrahedron to describe a triangular pyramid. Since it uses squares as well as triangles.

#### Tetrahedron

Tetrahedron is a triangular pyramid having congruent equilateral triangular for each of its faces.

The total surface area of a tetrahedron

= 4 x area of an equilateral triangle

= 4 x $$\frac{√3}{4}$$ side2

=√3 side2

Volume of a tetrahedron = $$\frac{1}{3}$$ area of base x height of pyramid

Net of tetrahedron

#### Square pyramid

A square pyramid is a pyramid having a square base.

In the figure, ABCD is a square base PO is the height of the pyramid. M is the mid-point of BC.

PM is the slant height of the pyramid.

Lateral surface area of a square pyramid = area of triangular faces

= 4 x area of Δ PBC

= 4 X $$\frac{1}{2}$$ x BC X PM

= 2 X BC X PM

Total surface area of the square pyramid = LSA + area of base.

Also, volume of the square pyramid = $$\frac{1}{3}$$ area of base x height

= $$\frac{1}{3}$$ A x h

Net of square pyramid

• Solid figures are three- dimensional objects.
• A cube is a 3-dimensional solid figure that bounded by the square faces.
• A solid object with two identical flat ends that are circular and one curved surface is a Cylinder.
• The base of a pyramid may be any polygon. If the base is a triangle, the pyramid is called tetrahendron.
• A cone is a solid object with the flat surface which is circular and one curved surface.
• A triangular prism is a prism whose bases are triangles and whose lateral faces are rectangles.
.

### Very Short Questions

Rectangular based pyramid

Tetrahedron

Cube

Cylinder

Cone

Pentagonal based pyramid

Triangular prism

Cuboid

Sphere

Tetrahedron

Cone

Cuboid

Cube

Cylinder

Cube

Net of Cube

Net of cylinder

Net of cuboid

Net of cone

Net ofTriangular pyramid

0%

500cm2
450cm2
520cm2
550cm2

1331cm3
1221cm3
1232cm3
1200cm3
• ### Find the volume and total surface area of a cuboid whose length is 12cm, breadth is 10cm and height is 8cm.

955cm3, 555cm2
960cm3, 592cm2
950cm3, 550cm2
900cm3, 590cm2

20m2
25m2
33m2
22m2

17cm
22cm
15cm
12cm

Rs 550
Rs 980
Rs 800
Rs 750

210cm3
275cm3
216cm3
222cm3

7cm
5cm
10cm
12cm

Rs 2000
Rs 2500
Rs 1000
Rs 1500
• ### Find the volume and total surface area of a cube whose each edge is, 6cm.

250cm3, 250cm2
216cm3, 216cm2
150cm3, 150cm2
515cm3, 515cm2

129m3
175m3
125m3
150m3

8cm
12cm
6cm
15cm

2500cm2
3000cm2
2000cm2
1500cm2

10cm
8cm
12cm
6cm

12775
12550
12750
12500
• ## You scored /15

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##### Anmol

Net of rectangle based pyramid

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The breaks is 5cm by 3cm by and 2cm and the box is 22cm by 16 cm and 14cm. How many bricks can be kept in the box. Find in six ways.