Note on Communicable Diseases

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Communicable diseases are those diseases which spread from one person to another via various media.

Safety Measures against communicable diseases

  1. Use of safe water
  2. Safe and balanced diet
  3. Immunization
  4. Cleanliness
  5. Use of toilet

Meningitis

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The brain is covered with a thin film of meninges from all side. Due to infection of various kinds of germs and viruses this layer of meninges swells giving pressure on the brain. This results in high fever and excruciating headache leading to death. Droplet infection and Infected goods are the modes of transmission of this disease.

Symptoms

  • Severe headache
  • High fever
  • Vomiting
  • Muscle spasm
  • Irregular pulse rate

Prevention measure

  • Personal, family and environmental cleanliness should be maintained.
  • Sputum and mucus of patient should be buried or burnt.
  • Take Meningococcal vaccine
  • Covering one's mouth and nose while sniffing and coughing

Encephalitis

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It is a dangerous and a fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Swelling and inflammation of the brain takes place when a person suffers from encephalitis and is followed by high fever, unconsciousness, and even death. Specially this disease spreads during summer. It is caused by the virus called 'Arbor- Virus'.

Symptoms

  • High fever
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea
  • Stiff neck
  • Loss of memory

Preventive measure:

  • Proper sanitation should be maintained.
  • Anti mosquito insecticides should be sprayed in stagnant water and proper drainage of the water system should be established.
  • Pigs and ducks should not be reared haphazardly near residential area.
  • Health education should be imparted.

Kala-Azar

It is transmitted by the bite of a type of fly, living in the sand, called 'sand fly'. It transmits a parasite called 'Leishmania Donovan' which causes kaka-azar.

Symptoms

  • The liver and the spleen swell and stop functioning resulting in pain in the liver.
  • Lymph nodes swell, skin becomes rough and dry, the body loses weight and becomes weaker.
  • Anemia, intermittent fever and loss of appetite.

Preventive measures

  • Destroy sand-flies using insecticides.
  • Maintain proper sanitation in and around the house.
  • Use mosquito nets while sleeping.
  • Visit the nearest health center or hospital foe checkup if kala-Azar is suspected.

Hepatitis-B

Hepatitis-B results from wind, blood, sexual contact, drugs, households of the patient etc. It damages the liver that leads to death. It is usually seen in people over age 20-40. It is fifty to hundred times more infectious than HIV.

Symptoms:

  • Loss of appetite and vomiting,
  • Body weakness and tiredness,
  • Nails, eyes, skin etc. turns yellow,
  • Dark urine

Preventive measures:

  • Examine the blood before taking or giving,
  • Use of patient's clothing or any materials after a fine wash,
  • Infected tools and syringe must not be used,
  • Early vaccination,
  • Avoid taking drugs, alcohol, and smoking,
  • Go to the clinics and consult with the doctor.

  • Communicable diseases are those diseases which spreads from one person to another via various media.
  • Hepatitis-B results from wind, blood, sexual contact, drugs, households of the patient etc.
  • The brain is covered with a thin film of meninges from all side. 
.

Very Short Questions

Communicable diseases are those diseases which spread from one person to another via various media.

We can prevent communicable diseases by following ways:

  • Use of safe water
  • Safe and balance diet
  • Immunization
  • Cleanliness
  • Use of toilet

HIV gets transferred by different ways.They are:

  • Sexual intercourse with the infected person,
  • Use of unsterilized utensils or needles,
  • From mother to child during pregnancy,
  • Through infected body fluids or tissues.

We can prevent this disease by following ways:

  • Avoid unsafe sexual contact,
  • Give or take blood only after examining,
  • Infected women should not get pregnant,
  • Use of sterilized needles only,
  • Avoid drugs.

The symptoms of HIV/AIDS are as follow:

  • Loss of weight
  • Continue diarrhea for more than 3 weeks,
  • Regular fever for a month,
  • Slow healing of the wound,
  • Throat inflammation.

The symptoms of meningitis are as follow:

  • Severe headache
  • High fever
  • Vomiting
  • Muscle spasm
  • Irregular pulse rate

Preventive measures of meningitis are as follow:

  • Personal, family and environmental cleanliness should be maintained.
  • Sputum and mucus of patient should be buried or burnt.
  • Take Meningococcal vaccine
  • Covering one's mouth and nose while sniffing and coughing.

Hepatitis-B results from wind, blood, sexual contact, drugs, households of the patient etc. It damages the liver that leads to death. It is usually seen in people of ages 20-40. It is fifty to hundred times more infectious than HIV.

Preventive measures are as follows:

  • Examine the blood before taking or giving,
  • Use of patient's clothing or any materials after a fine wash,
  • Infected tools and syringe must not be used,
  • Early vaccination,
  • Avoid taking drugs, alcohol, and smoking.
  • Go to the clinics and consult with the doctor.

The symptoms of Kala-Azar are as follow:

  • The liver and the spleen swell and stops functioning resulting in pain in the liver.
  • Lymph nodes swell, skin becomes rough and dry, a body loses weight and becomes weaker.
  • Anemia, intermittent fever and loss of appetite.

Preventive measures of Kala-Azar are:

  • Destroy sand-flies using insecticides.
  • Maintain proper sanitation in and around the house.
  • Use mosquito nets while sleeping.
  • Visit the nearest health center or hospital foe checkup if kala-Azar is suspected.

The types of dysentery are as follow:

Amoebic dysentery:

This type of dysentery is mostly found in tropical countries. It is general and a serious one, if treatment is not available in time, we cannot prevent it and people die. It is caused by a parasite named Entamoeba Histolytica. Dirty food and contaminated water are the modes of transmission this disease.This parasite destroys mucous in the small intestine.

Symptoms

  • Watery stool
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach ache
  • Stool contains mucous

Bacillary Dysentery:

It is a very dangerous disease, it transmits quickly in summer seasons from contaminated water, stale rotten food, and unhealthy habits. It is caused by the parasite Bacillus shigella. Improper disposal of excreta and unhygienic food habits are the main mode of transmission of this disease.

Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Body ache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dry mouth
  • Thirsty feeling
  • Vomiting and severe stomach ache

0%
  • When was AIDS discovered in United States of America?

    In 1988


    In 1980


    In 1987


    In 1981


  • Which one of them is the symptom of AIDS?

    Continuous fever for more than a month


    All the answers are correct


    Continuous diarrhea


    Loss of the body weight


  • Hepatitis B is caused by a virus called ______.

    Hepatitis B


    retrovirus


    treponemia pallidum


    Hepatitis C


  • Gonorrhoea is an infection of genitourinary tract caused by ______.

    syphilis


    none of the options are correct


    retrovirus


    neisseria Gonococcus


  • Encephalitis is caused by the virus called ______.

    none of the answers are correct


    arbor virus


    encephalitis


    bebro virus


  • ______ is a disease of the nervous system.

    Encephalitis


    None of the options are correct


    Meningitis


    Epilepsy


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DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

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Forum Time Replies Report
Sangharsha Tyataju

How is Hepatitis-B more infectious than HIV???


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ayush

what are the no. of people who are suffering from std


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WHAT IS MEANT BY MUSCLE SPASM?

NO


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SHREYA

How does ENCEPHALITIS transfer from one person to another?


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