Note on Transport and Communication

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Concept of Transportation and Communication

Transportation and communication are important infrastructures for the overall economic development of a country. Transport is that facility by which people can move from one place to another place and transfer goods and services from one place to other. The means of transport available in Nepal are road transport, ropeway, cable car and air transport.

Communication is defined as the medium of exchanging news, views, and propagation of information. Important media of communication in Nepal are postal services, radio, telephone, teller, internet, e-mail, fax, television, and newspapers.

Means of Transportation

Source: slideshare.net
Source: slideshare.net

There are various means of transportation in the world. The modern means of transportation include surface transport, air transport, sea-route etc. The main means of transportation used in Nepal are surface transport and air transport.

Surface Transport

Surface transport includes road transport, railway transport, ropeway transport, trolley bus, cable car etc.

  • Road Transport :

Due to the rugged physiography of Nepal, road transport gets an important place here. It is the major means of transport in Nepal. But in 2007 B.S., there was only 376 km of the road including 5 km of blacktopped. There was altogether 23,209 km road up to FY 2011. But by the end of 2012, 24,389 km road has been constructed. Major highways of Nepal with their respective lengths are given in the table:

S.N.

Highway

Length (Km)

1.

Mahendra Highway

1024

2.

Tribhuwan Rajpath

190

3.

Prithivi Highway

174

4.

Siddhartha Highway

184

5.

Araniko Highway

114

  • Railway Transport :

The first railway line in Nepal was constructed in 1929 between Amlekgunj and Raxaul, which was known as Nepal Government Railway. Janakpur-Jaynagar railway which is 52 km long, constructed in 1936.

  • Ropeway (Cable Car):

The transportation system which is operated from electricity is called Ropeway. In 1964, a new Kathmandu-Hetauda ropeway was begun. Now this ropeway system is not in operation.

During the 9th plan period as per the government policy of promoting private sector participation in the transport sector, a cable-car project had been undertaken by the private sector from Kuringhat to Manakamana.

  • Air Transport:

Air transport started in Nepal on a regular basis in 1953 A.D with three old aircraft which belonged to an Indian company. The air transport system was developed in the country with the establishment of Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC) in 1958 A.D. Tribhuwan International Airport having its initial runway length of 6,600 feet was constructed with American assistance. Modern equipment of air traffic control RADAR has been installed with the assistance of Japan in 1998 A.D.

Since, Nepal is a mountainous country, it faces many difficulties to develop road facility to all parts of the country. Therefore, air transport is the only alternative facilities to all parts of the country. At present, Nepal has 51 airports including one international airport in Kathmandu. A total of 120 helipads has been constructed in the country.

Means of Communication

Source: slideshare.net
Source: slideshare.net

There are two ways for establishing communication. One is personal communication and the other is mass communication. Postal services, wireless telephone, and e-mail are the means of personal communication and radio, television and newspaper are the means of mass communication. Some important means of communication services in Nepal are as follows:

  1. Postal Services:
    Postal services are one of the traditional modes of transportation services in Nepal and it is one of the most important communication services. Postal services started in Nepal from 1879 A.D. By the end of the fiscal year 2013, there were 3992 post offices in Nepal.

  2. Telecommunication Services:
    Telecommunication is the easiest and fastest means of communication. The telecommunication department was established in 2016 B.S in Nepal. The development of telecommunication services in Nepal is extended to all the 75 districts of the country. At present, Nepal telecommunication company (Nepal Telecom) is providing telephone services.

  3. Radio Broadcasting Services:
    One of the most important means of mass communication is radio broadcasting service has been accessible throughout the medium-wave transmission. Radio Nepal is also using V-SAT to make its broadcast audible throughout the country.

  4. Television Services:
    Television telecasting services is an important, effective and live medium of mass communication. The service of Nepal television started in 2042 B.S. It is expanding its services in various parts of the country.

  5. Newspapers:
    Newspapers are also the effective medium of mass communication. By mid-May 2013, the total number of newspaper registered in the various district of kingdom reached 6590. Out of the total newspaper 4510 are in the Nepali language.

Role of Transportation and Communication in Economic Development

The important role of transportation and communication can be explained as follows:

  1. Basis of Agricultural Development:
    Transport and communication play a vital role in the development of agricultural sector. Materials and equipment necessary for agriculture operation are carried to the agricultural field through transport services.

  2. Basis of Industrial Development:
    Development of transport facilities helps to carry raw materials from one part of the country to another part and outside the country. The efficient flow of inputs and outputs is the basic prerequisite for industrial development.

  3. Basis of Tourism Development:
    Development of tourism is impossible without efficient transport and communication system. Tourist requires transport and communication facilities to travel to various parts of the country.

  4. Basis of Tertiary Sector Development:
    Transport and communication is an integral part of tertiary sector helping to promote trade and commerce. The increase in financial activities plays an effective role in the economic development of a country.

  5. Market Expansion:
    Market expansion is also a pre-requisite of economic development. The development of transport and communication helps to expand market because transport and communication facilities help to transport goods and services from one place to another.

Reference:

Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad, Economics-XI, Asmita Pustak Prakashan, Kathmandu

Kanel, Navaraj et.al., Principles of Economics-XI, Buddha Prakashan, Kathmandu

Kharel, Khom Raj et.al., Economics In English Medium-XI, Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, Kathmandu

Means of Transportation

  1. Road Transport 
  2. Railway Transport 
  3. Ropeway Transport
  4. Air Transport

Means of Communication

  1. Postal Services
  2. Telecommunication Services
  3. Radio Broadcasting Services
  4. Television Services
  5. Newspapers

Role of transportation and communication in the economic development

  1. Basis of Agricultural Development
  2. Basis of Industrial Development
  3. Basis of Tourism Development
  4. Basis of Tertiary Sector Development
  5. Market Expansion
.

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