Note on Tense

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Exercise

Tense

The tenses of verbs indicate two different things about the action concerned

  • The time of the action- present, past, future.
  • The kind of the action- single, repeated, continuous, completed, incomplete, etc.

Present

Past

Future

Simple

He runs.

We run

He ran.

We ran.

He will run.

We shall run.

Continuous

He is running.

We are running.

He was running.

We were running.

He will be running.

We shall be running.

Perfect

He has run.

We have run.

He had run.

We had run.

He will have run.

We shall have run.

Perfect continuous

He has been running.

We have been running.

He had been running.

We had been running.

He will have been running.

We shall have been running.

The Present Continuous Tense

Structures:

  • Affirmative:

Sub + is/am/are + v4 + obj

E.g. He is writing a letter.

  • Negative:

Sub + id/am/are + not + v4 + obj

E.g. He is not writing a letter.

  • Questions:

Is/am/are + sub + v4 + obj + ?

E.g. Is he writing a letter?

WH + is/am/are + sub + v4 + obj + ?

E.g. Why is he writing a letter?

  • Active:

Sub + is/am/are + v4 + obj

E.g. He is writing a poem.

  • Passive:

Obj + is/am/are + being + v4 + by + sub

A poem is being written by him.

Uses:

We use present continuous tense to show:

  • Things that are happening now at the moment.

E.g. What are you doing?

She’s reading in the garden.

  • Actions happening in a period around the present moment in time:

E.g. Whose account are you working on?

She’s studying hard for her final exam.

  • Future plans and arrangements:

E.g. They are coming to stay with us in September.

I’m going to give an interview on May 20.

  • Gradual change:

E.g. The children are growing fast.

The price of things is going up.

The Present Perfect Tense

Structures:

  • Affirmative:

Sub + has/have + v3 + obj

E.g. He has written a letter.

  • Negative:

Sub + has not/have not + v3 + obj

E.g. He has not written a letter.

  • Questions:

Has/have + sub + v3 + obj + ?

E.g. Has he written a letter?

WH + has/have + sub + v3 + obj + ?

E.g. Why has he written a letter?

  • Active:

Sub + has/have + v3 + obj

E.g. He is written a letter.

  • Passive:

Obj + has/have + been + v3 + by + sub

A letter is been written by him.

Uses:

We use the present perfect tense to talk about:

  • Happenings in the past that affect or explain the present situation.

E.g. Diya looks upset. Has she failed the exam?

I can’t pay the bus fare. I’ve lost my purse.

  • Our experiences

E.g. I have been to Pokhara.

I’ve never been to Dharan.

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Very Short Questions

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DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

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Pratik

What was your depth What was your depth


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Rajan

mr.shrestha.........a business for 10 years now.(has been running,had been running,have been running)


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ram fell ............. the ladder.(from,down,off,of)


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