Note on Aluminum

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Symbol: Al

Atomic No: 13

Atomic weight: 27

Valency: 3

Electronic configuration: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p1

Position in the periodic table:Aluminum is a 'p' block element. It belongs to period 3 and group III A of the periodic table.


Important ores of aluminum

  1. Bauxite
  2. Feldspar
  3. China clay
  4. Caryolite

Properties

Physical properties

  1. Aluminum is a bluish white shining metal.
  2. It is the lightest metal and its specific gravity is 2.7.
  3. Its melting point is 6600C and boiling point is 18000C.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

Chemical properties

Action with acids:

  1. Aluminum reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid and to give hydrogen.

    2Al + dil. 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2

    2Al + dil. 3H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3+ 3H2

  2. Aluminum reacts with hot concentrated sulphuric acid andsulphur

    2Al + conc.6H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3+ 3SO2+ 6H2O

  3. Aluminum has no reaction with dilute and concentrated nitric acid.

Uses of aluminum

  1. Aluminum is used for making utensils, frames, electrical appliances, etc.

    http://sam.davyson.com/as/physics/aluminium/siteus/resources/cook.jpg

    Fig: Aluminum utensil

    https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQxkEqDaMZZLQgHFyhxiDWWC-S8UQkJhdVSAAzxXFDjT-a9EbdtkA

    Fig: Aluminum frame
  2. It is used for making electrical wire.

    http://www2.uncp.edu/home/mcclurem/ptable/aluminum/Al_3_2.jpg

    Fig: Aluminum wire

  3. It is used for making alloys and coins.
  4. Its alloys are used for making sailboats, aircrafts, etc.
  5. It is used for making aluminum foils whichis used for wrapping food, cigarette, etc.

    http://www.haomei-aluminium.com/images/pic/aluminum-foil.jpg

    Fig: Aluminum foil

    Fig: Aluminum foil container

  • Aluminum 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,2p1
  • The important ores of aluminum are bauxite, feldspar, china clay and caryolite.
  • The physical properties of aluminium are: bluish white shining metal, lightest metal, malleable and ductile in nature, melting point is 6600C and boiling point is 18000C.
  • Aluminum has no reaction with dilute and concentrated nitric acid.
  • Aluminium is used to make alloys and coins, make aluminum foils which is used for wrapping food, make utensils, electrical wire, frames, electrical appliances, etc.
.

Very Short Questions

When aluminum is heated with chlorine, it gives aluminum chloride. 2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3

Hydrochloric acid is kept in a glass or plastic container because it does react with them but not in aluminum container because aluminum dissolves readily in hydrochloric acid. 2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2

The two ores of aluminum are: Bauxite (Al2O3.2H2O) and Feldspar [K (AlSi3O8)]

The external cover of the airplane is made from aluminum instead of iron because: a. Aluminum is lighter than iron. b. Rusting does not occur on aluminum while rusting occurs on iron when it is exposed in air.

Aluminum metal is reactive elements so it reacts with alkali such as caustic soda or caustic potash solution to form meta-aluminate with the release of hydrogen gas. Therefore, aluminum vessels should not be washed with powder containing alkali.

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction between dilute hydrochloric is acid and aluminum. Al + dil. HCl → AlCl3 + H2

2Al + dil. 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2

Salt i.e. Aluminum chloride is formed from the reaction.

When aluminum is heated in presence of chlorine, it gives aluminum chloride. 2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3

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  • The atomic number of aluminum is

    16
    15
    13
    14
  • The electronic configuration of aluminum is

    2s2,2p6,3s2,2p1
    1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,2p3
    1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2
    1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,2p1
  • Aluminium belongs to ______ of the periodic table.

    group IA


    group III A


    Group zero


    Group VII


  • The ore of aluminum is

    bauxite
    pyrite
    hematide
    magnetide
  • Aluminum reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid and ?to give

    none of above
    oxygen
    hydrogen
    hydrogen and oxygen
  • Aluminum has no reaction with

    sulphuric acid
    nitric acid
    hydrochloric acid
    acetic acid
  • Aluminum is a _____ block element.

    's'
    'f'
    'p'
    'd'
  • Which metal is obtained commercially by the electrolysis of salt?

    Fe
    Zn
    K
    Ag
  • Aluminum is belongs to period 3 and ______of the periodic table.

    group IvI A


    group III B


    group III A


    group II A


  • Which one is Important ores of aluminum?

    China clay
    Feldspar
    Bauxite
    All of these
  • The melting point of aluminum  is ______.

    18000 C


    16600 C


    6600 C


    6000 C


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Rojina

Why aluminium tools are not affected by air and water??


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