Pollution is the presence of a substance that tends to affect directly or indirectly the environment or changes, degrades or spoils the environment. Pollution can be categorized into following types:
- Air Pollution
- Water Pollution
- Soil Pollution
- Noise Pollution
An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air is called pollution. The substances which pollute the air called pollutants. Air pollution causes heart diseases, eye problem, cancer etc. Apart from it, air carries the bacteria and virus from one place to another place and transmits different diseases such as tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria and acute respiratory tract infections.
Causes of air pollution
The following are the main causes of air pollution:
- The dust particles and harmful materials blown out by the wind gets mixed in the air and pollutes it.
- Natural gases that come from inside the earth's surface also pollutes the air.
- Harmful gases released from different factories, industries and vehicles pollutes the air.
- Gases that comes from burnt materials,rotten and decayed materials also pollutes the air.
- Poisonous gases spreading out in the fields, rooms and houses are also the causes for air pollution.
Effects of air pollution
The following are the effects of air pollution:
- Air pollution causes respiratory tract infection (RTI) and asthma.
- It deteriorates the cultural heritage and trees.
- It brings various skin and eye allergy.
- It is the main cause of global warming. that affects all the creatures of the world.
Preventive measures of air pollution
The preventive measures of air pollution are as follows:
- The air pollutants should be controlled as the point source by using electrostatic precipitator or filter in the industries.
- The use of cheap fuel with higher sulphur content should be avoided. Use of disulphurized coal should be used.
- Alternate sources of energy should be used in place of coal, wood, oil etc.
- Population growth rate should be controlled.
- Strip plantation should be done everywhere on the road side.
- Strict check of car exhaust should be maintained.
- Public awareness programme about the effects of pollution should be managed.
Degradation in the quality of water is called water pollution. Water covers over the 3/4th part of the earth’s surface. It is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources. Drainage and wastage from industries, laboratory, hospitals, and homes are the main factors that causes water pollution.
Causes of water pollution
The following are the main causes of water pollution: -
- Natural calamities like flood, landlides, soil erosion, heavy rain, etc. also pollute the water.
- Leakage of agro-chemical from agricultural fields mixing with water resource can also cause water pollution.
- Throwing of dead bodies of animals in water resources also pollutes water.
- Some human activities like washing of clothes and utensils near wells, ponds, streams, lakes, etc. also pollutes the water sources.
Effects of water pollution
The following are the main effects of water pollution: -
- Water pollution causes water-borne disease like diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera.
- It also brings various skin allergy if taken the bath with polluted water.
- Acid rain deteriorates cultural heritages.
- It has the negative impact on plants.
- Aquatic animals cannot survive in polluted water.
Preventive measures of water pollution
The following are the main preventive measures of water pollution: -
- The dead bodies of animals and other wastes should not be thrown in water resources.
- People should be made aware of the consequences of water pollution and they should be encouraged to participate in the pollution control programme.
- Production of domestic waste should be reduced as far as possible and it should not be thrown in and around the water resources like ponds, rivers, lakes, streams etc.\
- Water pollution due to soil erosion, landslides, and floods should be controlled by minimizing the activities which cause these problems.
Land pollution is the degradation of earth's surface. Land pollution makes the quality of soil low. It directly affects the plants and indirectly to human beings. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is known as land degradation.
Causes of land pollution
The following are the main causes of land pollution: -
- The accumulation of huge amount of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable waste materials pollutes land.
- Farmers use chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in their farms to increase production. However, it adversely can affect land and water resources in and around there.
- Soil is polluted by storing of soluble and insolubledirt's on the earth.
- Trekkers and mountaineers carry different types of packed food and other necessary things with them. After using them, they throw such materials like plastics, tins and other materials there. This pollutes some of the tourist areas of rural and city parts of Nepal.
- The solid and liquid substance of the industries such as leather, shoe, battery distillery, paper and metal destroy the land conditions and it pollutes the soil.
Effects of land pollution
The following are the main effects of land pollution:
- Land pollution kills the useful organisms like an earthworm.
- The soil becomes infertile and not suitable for cultivation.
- Agriculture production will decrease.
- Underground water becomes polluted.
- Bad smell spreads from the polluted land and it causes pollution to the surrounding places.
- It destroys beauty of the environment and the importance of cultural heritages as well.
Preventive measures of land pollution
The following are the preventive measures of land pollution: -
- Bio-degradable materials such as residue of plants, vegetables and other wastes of plants should be used to make compost.
- Broken machines, vehicles and other materialsshould be re-used.
- Legal provision should be made on the management of solid wastes.
- The solid waste and harmful chemicals from industries, hospitals and laboratories should be processed and purified to some extent before discharging them to land and water resources.
- The use of plastic bags and other materials made from plastic should be reducedand must be re-used in some extent.
Noise is considered as environmental pollution, even though it is thought to have less damage to humans than water, air or land pollution. Noise pollution also disturbs the ecosystem. Noise pollution does not harm the environment as much as air pollution but if affects the health of the person negatively. If someone has to stay in a very noisy condition for long time, this will affect the hearing power (nervous system).
Causes of noise pollution
The following are the main causes of noise pollution:
- Noise is created during construction by machinery.
- Market area, densely populated settlement, industrial area produces much sound that causes noise pollution.
- Industries like cement factory, flour mill, metal industries, etc. produces loud noise.
- Noise-pollution is caused by construction activities like road construction and building construction.
- Crowd in urban areas and miking causes sound pollution.
- Playing radio, television and various musical instruments in high volume causes sound pollution.
Effects of noise pollution
The following are the main effects of noise pollution:
- Sitting in a noisy place for long time damages our hearing capacity.
- It causes imbalance in the production of hormones.
- Frustration, depression, hypertension etc. may cause.
- High-stress level and sleep disturbances may happen.
- A loud noise may break the tympanic membrane of the ear and it leads to diseases.
Preventive measures of noise pollution
The following are the preventive measures of noise pollution:
- Green belts should be created where there is the high level of noises.
- The people who work in noisy places should use earplugs.
- Vehicles which produces loud noise should not be operated near the cities.
- High walls can be built around the factory which helps to check the transmission of noise.
- Machine with silencer should be used as far as possible. Regular servicing of machie is also helpful to check the sund pollution.