Note on Cell wall

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Cell wall

cell wall

source:www.buzzle.com

The cell wall is a thick rigid protective layer surrounding all plant cells except gametes and zoospores. Beside plants, it occurs in fungi, bacteria, blue-green algae etc but it is completely absent in an animal cell.

Structure of Plant cell wall

Structure of Plant cell wall
source:en.wikipedia.org

fig:Structure of Plant cell wall

It consists of following important parts;

  • Primary wall
  • Secondary wall
  • Middle lamella
  • Plasmodesmata

Primary wall

It is present in all growing living plant cell. But only this wall layer is present in a certain plant cell. eg; Parenchyma. It is thin, elastic and lies inner to the middle lamella. Its thickness may range to 1-3µm (micron). It is chemically composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. It consists of loosely arranged cellulose microfibrils which remain embedded in the matrix of hemicellulose, pectin, and water.

Secondary wall

It is present or formed only in certain mature non-dividing or dead cells. Eg; cork cells, sclerenchyma, tracheids, vessels. It lies inner to the primary wall and is thick and inelastic in nature. Its thickness may range from 5-10µ. The chemical composition of a secondary wall is cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and extra chemical compound like lignin. It consists of closely arranged cellulose microfibrils in the matrix.

Middle lamella

It lies in between the primary walls of two adjoining cell. It is also called cementing layer which joins the cell together. It is chemically composed of calcium and magnesium pectates.

Plasmodesmata

Plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic connections or bridges present between two adjoining cells. These connections are present in small pores across the cell wall. They help to transfer the substances across the cell and also give cytoplasmic continuity to the cells.

Function of cell wall

  • It protects inner contents of cells.
  • It gives mechanical support and rigidity to the cell.
  • It gives shape to the cell.
  • It prevents undue expansion of the cell.
  • The cell wall of root hairs helps in the absorption of water and minerals.
  • It prevents osmotic bursting of the cell.
  • The cell wall of leaf cells prevents excessive transpiration.
  • It also carries out enzymatic activities.

  • The cell wall is a thick rigid protective layer surrounding all plant cells except gametes and zoospores.
  • Beside plants, it occurs in fungi, bacteria, blue-green algae etc but it is completely absent in an animal cell.
  • Plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic connections or bridges present between two adjoining cells. 
  • The chemical composition of the secondary wall is cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and extra chemical compound like lignin. 
  • The cell wall of leaf cells prevents excessive transpiration.It also carries out enzymatic activities.

 

 

 

 

 

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