Note on Family-Gramineae

  • Note
  • Things to remember

cv c

source:forages.oregonstate.edu

It is commonly known as grass family.

Class: Monocotyledonae

Series: Glumaceae

Order: Graminales

Family: Gramineae

New name: Poaceae

Distribution

This is the largest family of monocotyledon which includes 620 genera and more than 10,000 species. The members are cosmopolitan in distribution. Many cereal plants are included in this family. Thus, this family is considered as the economically important family.

fg

Vegetative character

Habit

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely woody. Shrubs (Thysanolena maxima)or tree-like reaching up to the height of 30 or even more (Bambusa).

Root

The adventitious root system, some grasses shows moniliform roots whereas in Zea mays stilt roots are present.

Stem

Aerial, erect or prostrate, simple, sometimes branched near the base, solid and swollen node, fistular internode, cylindrical, glabrous, sometimes glaucous.

Leaf

Cauline and ramal, ex-stipulate, sessile, simple, alternate, ligulate, leaf consists of leaf sheath and leaf blade with auricles and ligule. Leaf sheath partially or completely covers the internode. At the junction of leaf sheath and leaf blade, thin membranous ligule is present. A pair of pointed claw-like appendages known as auricles occur on either side of ligule, leaf blade is thin, flattened, narrow, linear to lanceolate with parallel venation.

Reproductive character

Inflorescence

Spike or panicle of spikelet. The inflorescence consists of many spikelets attached to the main axis known as rachis. Each spikelet consists of one to many florets attached to the central axis known as rachilla. A pair of sterile glumes occurs at the base of spikelet.

Floret

Bracteate, bracts are represented by outer lemma and inner pulea, sessile complete, rarely incomplete, bisexual, rarely unisexual(Zea mays), zygomorphic, trimerous hypogynous.

Perianth

Sepals modified into 2 or 3 lodicules, sometimes absent(Bambusa).

Androecium

Stamens 3 polyandrous, sometimes 6 (Oryzae, Bambusa), 2 (Sporobolus), 1(Uniola), anthers dithecous, versatile, sometimes dorsifixed, extrorse, inferior.

Gynoecium

Carpel 1, monocarpellary, sometimes 2 or 3 bi or tri carpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, unilocular with single ovule in basal placentation, style 2, sometimes 3 (Bambusa) or 1(Nardus), stigma two lateral feathery.

Fruit

Caryopsis

Floral formula

Br. % Plodicules A3 or 1-6 G1 or (2)

Economic importance

  • Oryzae Sativa (Rice)
  • Triticum aestivum (Wheat)
  • Zea mays (Maize)
  • Hordeum vulgare (Barley)
  • Cynodon dactylon (Grass)
  • Saccharum officinarum (Sugarcane)

  • This is the largest family of monocotyledon which includes 620 genera and more than 10,000 species.
  • The members are cosmopolitan in distribution.
  • Many cereal plants are included in this family. Thus, this family is considered as the economically important family.
  •  A pair of pointed claw-like appendages known as auricles occurs on either side of ligule.
  • Each spikelet consists of one to many florets attached to the central axis known as rachilla. 

 

.

Very Short Questions

0%

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report


You must login to reply