Note on Family-Solanaceae

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source:www.pbase.com

Class: Dicotyledonae

Sub-class: Gamopetalae

Series: Bicarpellate

Order: Polemoniales

Family: Solanaceae

Common name

Distribution

This family includes 90 genera and 2200 species. The largest genus solanum includes 1700 species. The members are found in trophics, sub-trophics, temperate regions. Many economically important vegetable plants are included in this family. So, this is considered as economically important family.

Vegetative Characters

Habit

Annual(Physalis minima), biennial or perennial herbs(Vicia, Pisum), shrubs(Cestrum, Brunfelsia), soft wooded trees (Solanum, Petunia), sometimes climbers (Lycium sinemis), terrestrial.

Root

Well developed branched taproot system.

Stem

Aerial, erect or prostrate or creeping with distinct nodes and internodes, branched, herbaceous. Sometimes woody, cylindrical, solid, rarely fistular, pubescent or glabrous, sometimes stem gets modified into the underground swollen structure due to the storage of food materials.

leaf

Cauline and ramal, exstipulate, petiolate or subsessile or sessile, alternate, opposite in upper portions or floral portions, simple, sometimes pinnately lobed(Lycopersicum) unicostate, reticulate venation.

Reproductive characters

Inflorescence

Cymose, axillary or extra-axillary condense cyme(Solanum nigrum), scorpioid cyme(Solanumtuberosum) sometimes solitary also.

Flower

Bracteate(Petunia), ebracteate(Cuithania), pedicellate, complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, weakly zygomorphic due to an oblique position of the ovary, pentamerous, hypogynous.

Calyx

Sepals(5), gamosepalous, valvate aestivation, persistent, sometimes four or six sepals may be present, inferior.

Corolla

Petals(5), gamopetalous, rotate or tubular(Solanum, Cestrum), campanulate(Atropa), infundibuliform(Datura), valvate or sometimes twisted aestivation or inferior

Androecium

Stamens 5, polyandrous, epipetalous, sometimes only 2 stamens (Schizanthes) may be present or sometimes 4 stamens in didynamous condition (Salpiglossis) may be seen. missing stamens are represented by the staminodes(Sterile stamens), anther dithecous, basifixed, introrse, connate(solanum) dehiscing by apical pore (Solanum) or longitudinal slits (Petunia) inferior.

Gynoecium

Carpels(2), bi carpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, obliquely placed, bilocular with many ovules, axile placentation, sometimes ovary may be tetralocular(Datum) or tritopentalocular(Nicandra), swollen placenta, style simple, stigma bifid or capitate.

Fruit

Berry(Lycopersicum), Septicidal capsule(Datura)

Floral formula

Ebr or Br. K(5) \(\widehat{C_{(5)} A_5}\) G

Economic Importance

Vegetables (food plants)

  • Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
  • Solanum nelongena (Brinjal)
  • Capsicum annum (Capsicum)
  • Capsicum Frutescence (Chilly)
  • Lycopersicum esuculentum (Tomato)
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source:howtolivelonglife.blogspot.com

Medical plants

  • Nicotania tabaccum(Tobacco)
  • Atropa beladonna (Atropo)
  • Datura stramonium (Dhatura)
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source: en.wikipedia.org

Ornamental plants

  • Solanum Jasminoldes (Jasmine)
  • Cestrum noctuurleum (Night jasmine)
  • Petunia hybrida (Petunia)

  • This family includes 90 genera and 2200 species. The largest genus solanum includes 1700 species.
  • The members are found in trophics, sub-trophics, temperate regions.
  • Many economically important vegetable plants are included in this family. So, this is considered as economically important family.

 

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