## Note on Different Mapping Techniques and Practical Modern Mapping Technologies

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Map

A map may be defined as the representation of the earth's surface with standard signs, drawn to a scale so that each and every point on it corresponds to the actual position or things on the ground. Every sign, symbol and letter of a map have different meanings. It is thus very important to know and understand the symbols used on a map.

Purpose of a Map

The map shows many things about a continent, country, or surroundings that we live in. A map of your town can show the house you live in or the school you go to. But it is not possible to show everything on a single map. So, different indexes are used on a map to represent different things. Sometimes we use different shades or colors. For example, we can use a green shade to represent a forest area.

Different Mapping Techniques

There has been a drastic change in mapping the world with development in information technology. Some techniques used in map making are as follows:

1. Independent Mapping Technique: Nearly everyone uses this technique for beginning a map making. In this technique, the map is made by studying an existing map and tracing it exactly. The maps can be inaccurate for a few times, but one can get acclimated after a while.
2. Carbon Paper Mapping: This method uses carbon paper to copy the map exactly from an existing map.
3. Tracing: The lower portion of the table is fitted with a glass and light is connected to the The base map is put in the glass and the new map is traced on a plain paper.
4. Photocopying: The original map is photocopied in a machine. This method only copies the map and doesn’t provide any skill to the person.
5. Overhead Projection (OHP) or Light Method: An OHP machine projects the map made in a clear plastic onto the wall and the new map is made using that. This method is not much in use these days.
6. Stencil Method: In this method, the necessary map trace is made in stencil paper. Then the copies are made using a Stencil Machine. This method is also not much in use these days.
7. Area Method: The original map is made on a paper with squares of equal area. Another map is made looking at the original lines in each box and traced exactly. After completion of the process, the map is ready.
8. GIS Method: This is special method where computer software is used to draw a map and is the most used method of map making in the world.
9. Template Method: In this method, a map is cut and turned into a block or frame. The block is then placed firmly on a plain paper and map is drawn around the block.

Any method used to draw a map is acceptable, and necessary details need to be filled in order for the map to be usable. A map is a universal language and the details need to be filled in according to the international standards.

Modern Practical Mapping Technologies

With increase in use and development of technology every sector is getting more accurate and powerful methods for their betterment. Mapping is also dependent on some modern technologies which have made it easier, accurate and clearer.

Geographical Information System (GIS)

This method communicates with the satellites in earth’s orbit and special computer software. The information received from the satellites is used to generate accurate maps. Mapping is done by processing the information collected from the satellites. The mapping method has been modernized because of this method, as the data is accurate and clear.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

We can find certain location information on earth with the aid of satellite support and some devices. And so on the basis of that information, any area can easily be mapped. We can receive the latitude, longitude, altitude, etc. and use those basic facts to draw the map. Apart from these systems, computers and mobile communication software use Google Earth and GPS as the modern geographic information sources.

#### Thematic Map

Maps are usually drawn to show different things on a small or a large scale. The details that are to be shown on it may vary according to requirement. Therefore, it is essential to regard scale and contents while classifying maps. Suppose a tourist wants to visit a place. What type of map should he look for? Of course, it is a tourist map. A tourist map contains all the information needed by a tourist like transportation, communication, hotels, tourist centers, etc. Thus, a map that conveys information according to the user and his requirement is known as a thematic map. They include information on any subject like landforms, countries, population, climate, etc.

• A map is the representation of the earth's surface with standard signs, drawn to a scale so that each and every point on it corresponds to the actual position or things on the ground.
• The map shows many things about a continent, country, or surroundings that we live in. A map of your town can show the house you live in or the school you go to. But it is not possible to show everything on a single map.
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### Very Short Questions

A map is defined as the representation of the earth's surface with standard signs, drawn to a scale so that each and every point on it corresponds to the actual position or things on the ground.

A map is an excellent way of communicating a lot of information. A map always has a purpose and the purpose determines what information is shown. A world traveller may need to know the climates in different countries; a rider to a city wants to find his way and see where hotels and places of interest are. A government official may need to know how land is being formed, and how much rainfall the land receives. Maps which shows one or two of such information are called thematic maps.

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pictograph
cartograph
a map
diagram
• ### Every sign, symbol and letter of a map has

same indicators
same meanings
different meanings
same definition

locator map
treasure map
flow map
thematic map