Note on Plant Tissue

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Tissue may be defined as a group or layer of similarly specialized cells which together performs certain special functions. On the basis of the types of cells found in tissues, they are classified as animals and plants tissues.

Plant tissue

A group of plant cells performing essentially the same function and common to the similar structure is a plant tissue. On the basis of the stages of development, plant tissues are divided into two types:

  1. Meristematic tissue
  2. Permanent tissue

1. Meristematic tissue

The group of young cells which have the capacity of active cell division is called meristem. On the basis of origin, they are classified as primary and secondary meristems.

  • Primary meristems: Those meristems, which are derived directly from the meristems of the embryo and responsible for primary growth and lie mainly on the apices of stems and roots, are called primary meristems. They are apical meristems (root apical and shoot apical meristems), intercalary meristems (only in monocots). They help increase the length of the plant.
  • Secondary meristems: They are the meristems which are formed as new meristems in permanent cells by redifferentiation and are responsible for increasing the diameter of the plant organ. They are of two types vascular cambium and cork cambium collectively known as lateral cambium (lateral meristem). They help plant to increase its girth.

2. Permanent tissue

They are made up of cells that have lost the power of division and are differentiation to carry out various functions. The permanent tissues are of following types:

  • Simple permanent tissue:These tissues are concerned with manufactured and storage of food and to provide mechanical support to plants.
  • Complex permanent tissue:They are made up of different types of cells. The most important complex tissues are xylem and phloem.
  • Special tissue:They are concerned with the secretion of materials like gums, oils, latex and other substances. They are further subdivided into two groups: lactiferous tissue and glandular tissue.

  • Tissue may be defined as a group or layer of similarly specialized cells which together performs certain special functions.
  • A group of plant cells performing essentially the same function and common to the similar structure is a plant tissue.
  • The group of young cells which have the capacity of active cell division is called meristem.
  • The simple permanent tissue is concerned with manufactured and storage of food and to provide mechanical support to plants.
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Very Short Questions

The tissue is a group of similar cells, which performs the specific function. E.g. blood, muscle etc.

The differences between meristematic tissue and permanent tissue are as follows:

Meristematic tissue Permanent tissue
i) It is classified into primary meristem and secondary meristem. i) It is classified into simple, complex and special.
ii) It is of different shapes without intercellular space. ii) It is of different shapes with an intercellular space.
iii) It undergoes mitosis cell division. iii) It loses the power of division.

Apical meristematic tissues help in increasing length so if these tissues stop functioning the plant cannot grow further through the root, as well as shoot.

Simple permanent tissues are of three types:
i) Parenchyma: In all the living areas of the plant body.
ii) Collenchyma: It occurs in the peripheral portions of young stems and leaves.
iii) Sclerenchyma: It is found in stems and roots as well as with the veins of leaves, a hard outer covering of seeds and nuts.

Complex tissues are a group of different kinds of cells, some of which may differ from each other in structure but work together.
It is mainly of two types:
i) Xylem
ii) Phloem

Parenchyma tissues are made up of thin-walled cells, which are living and having shapes like oval or spherical.

Phloem is the storage tissue made by vascular bundle and other components. So, it is called as complex tissue.

A type of complex tissue called xylem transport water from the root to other parts of the plant.

Phloem tissue helps in transportation of prepared food materials from the leaf to storage organs and growing regions too. So, if all these tissues are removed from plant body, energy supply to every cell is stopped and no further activities can perform by plant cell. Ultimately, the cell dies which result in the death of the plant.

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  • Which are the two types of tissues?

    Meristematic and permanent
    Meristems and temporary
    Meristematic and temporary
    None of the above
  • Parenchyma is a type of _________

    phloem
    xylem
    complex tissue
    simple tissue
  • ______ tissues prevent loss of water in plants.

    Phloem
    Protective
    None of the above
    Xylem
  • _________ tissue forms new cells in plants.

    Permanent
    Meristematic
    Simple
    none of the above
  • Striated muscle is also called ______

    involuntary muscle
    cardic muscle
    skeletal muscle
    smooth muscle
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