Note on Excreta Management

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

Effects of excreta disposal on environmental health

Excreta disposed in free space pollutes air, water and land. Some of the problems created by excreta are described below:

Pollution of surroundings

Some people excrete in open areas whereas some in latrine. Similarly some people do not keep latrine clean. This is harmful to our health. It also makes our surroundings polluted.

Pollution of air, water and land

There is not proper latrines in rural areas as compared to urban areas. They use open space as field for defecation. It pollutes air, water and land.

Spread of diseases

Polluted environment is a favorable place for spreading germs. The agents spread through excreta to our food, cause cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid etc.

Types of latrines and use

Latrine is a place where disposal of excreta is done. Latrines helps to keep our environment clean. The types of latrines differ from rural and urban areas.People use different types of latrine as convenient to them. Different types of latrines are described below:

Simple pit Latrine

This latrine is constructed by digging pit. Its size depends on the size of the family. It can be constructed in rural areas where there is lack of sufficient material like cement, water iron rod etc.

Site selection:

Site for a pit latrine should be selected carefully. The soil structure of its site should be hard. The following points should be considered while selecting its site:

  • A pit latrine should be about 30 feet away from the house and it should be constructed below the water sources.
  • Pit latrine should not be constructed on the land that consists of soft soil.
  • The door and ventilation of latrine should not be faced towards the house. Otherwise, bad smell of the latrine spreads towards houses.

Advantages and disadvantages of simple pit latrine

There are both advantages and disadvantages of simple pit latrine. They are as follows:

  • Pit latrine can be constructed in the area where there is lack of sufficient water to use.
  • Pit latrine can be constructed with low cost. After construction, it can be used for longer period.
  • Ventilator can be kepi in the latrine and a wooden slab can cover the pan.
  • If proper attention is not given while constructing the pit latrine, pit may be filled from sliding the soft soil around the pit. It may spread bad smell and may cause several diseases.

Improved pit latrine (SULAV Shauchalaya)

It is the improved pit latrines. There is a provision of drain up to the pits. This type of latrine is permanent and better than simple latrine. The site of improved pit latrine is selected following the criteria as in simple pit latrine.

Advantages of improved pit latrine

The advantages of Improved pit latrine are as follows:

  • It consists of two pits. When first pit is filled second pit is used. The excreta of first pit convert into compost before using second pit. Less experienced person can construct it.
  • This latrine is permanent because it is constructed by using cement, rings, pans and slab.
  • There is water seal in its pan so that it prevents to spreads bad smell.
  • This latrine helps to prevent from diseases that are born from excreta. It helps to keep our environment healthy and keep us healthy.

  • Latrine is a place where disposal of excreta is done.
  • Excreta disposed in free space pollutes air, water and land.
  • The agents spread through excreta to our food, cause cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid etc.
.

Very Short Questions

There are mainly two types of latrine. They are:
Simple pit latrine: A simple pit latrine is constructed by digging a pit. Its size depends on the size of the family and their need. It can be constructed in rural areas where sufficient water and construction materials like cement, iron rod and other materials are lacking.
Improved pit latrine: This type of latrine is permanent and more hygienic than the simple pit latrine. Two pits are made in the selected site. Only one pit latrine is used until it is filled. When one is filled with excreta, another is used. Drawing the use of the second, the first becomes dry, odorless and easy for emptying.

The advantages of simple pit latrine are:

  • It can be constructed in low cost using the locally available materials.
  • It needs less amount of water.
  • It doesn't need trained manpower to construct.
  • Use of pit help to make surroundings clean protecting the growth and spread to fly, insects and germs.
  • No person is required to take excreta.

The advantages of improved latrine are:

  • It is more hygienic and even semi-skilled manpower can build it.
  • This type of latrine can be constructed near the house. It can be constructed in terai area and wet land.
  • It helps to keep the surrounding clean and healthy. Water seal pan helps to prevent from foul smell.
  • This latrine prevents to spread the disease born from human excreta.

The results of the mismanagement of latrine are:

  • Due to defection in the open place air, water and land are polluted.
  • If the latrine is not in good condition, people defecate in the open ground, causing pollution in the surroundings.
  • Flies and harmful insects spread and the settlement area becomes unhealthy.
  • Innumerable microbes are found in excreta if it is left open.
  • Diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, yellow fever etc are caused.

Compost manure is prepared from organic waste materials. Generally, compost manure is prepared in rural areas because the waste materials there is mostly like cattle dung, residues of vegetable and agricultural products. Urban areas have high population. Due to high population, different types of developmental activities take place. There is large use of artificial products even as food packed by plastic. Therefore there is presence of large amount of non-biodegradable and biodegradable solid wastes. There is no place for proper disposal of these wastes. If there wastes can be used, it will gain economy and environment also will be safe. Thus, "if we can make compost manure of waste collected from urban areas, there will be an economic benefit."

The advantages of modern seal latrine are:

  • It is safe and durable. It can be built inside house.
  • As it is well constructed with modern materials such as pan, flush system and safety tank, it is hygienic.
  • It is safe even for children and they can use easily.
The disadvantages of modern seal latrine are:
  • Very skilled man power is needed to construct it.
  • It is very expensive than other type of latrines.

The points that should be considered while selecting the site for borehole latrine are:

  • Site should be selected at least 30 feet away from the house.
  • It should be constructed below the water source.
  • It should be constructed in hard soil that increases the life of latrine.
  • The door and ventilation of latrine should face towards the house.

0%
  • Which latrine is also called 'sulav sauchalaya'?

    simple pit latrine
    improved pit latrine
    advanced latrine
    single pit latrine
  • Which one of the following is not water borne disease?

    Cholera
    Dysentry
    Asthama
    Typhoid
  • Simple pit latrine is

    single pit latrine
    tripple pit latrine
    double pit latrine
    pan latrine
  • A pit latrine should be about ______ away from home.

    30 feet
    50 feet
    20 feet
    15 feet
  • A place where disposal of excreta is done is

    latrine
    domitry
    dining
    kitchen
  • You scored /5


    Take test again

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report


You must login to reply

unplanned urbanization


You must login to reply

Aarya Ghimire

Why latrine should be properly managed? Give any five reasons .


You must login to reply

Sachin

three effect of open stool the and urine on environment health?


You must login to reply