Introduction to wastewater
The water which is thrown after it is used in different purposes is known as waste water. Congested areas produce a large amount of waste water. Sources of wastewater are house, industry, latrine, hospital and industry. This is also known as polluted water. The materials found in polluted water are pollutants.
Composition of waste water
Wastewater from kitchen contains dissolved or non-dissolved food particles. Similarly, it may contain cleaning powder and ashes. Waste water from latrine contains excreta as well as soap water. Wastewater disposed of industries contains different materials according to the types of industry. The composition of wastewater depends on its sources.
Management of drainage
Management of wastewater helps to keep our environment clean. The pollutants of waste water differ from source to source. Some methods that can be applied for the proper management of drainage are as follows:
- The drainage system should be built in the residential area to manage waste water of home, latrine and rain water.
- Proper care and maintenance of a drainage system should be done.
- Accumulation of more water in agricultural land is harmful to soil, plants, useful insects and organisms. It makes land loose and thus causes landslides and soil erosion.
- There should be the participation of the local people on drainage management. The participation of local people makes easy in repairing of drainages.
Management Methods of Inorganic Wastages
All the house , institution , offices , and industries etc are the areas theregular source of waste material . The waste material from vegetable , ashes , waste paper , brokenglass etc are the example of solid wastes . The waste water , solid waste should also be managed in proper place . We human beings use various types of things in our daily life . After using that substance we can find some waste material which comes out from them . When that material are thrown without properdisposal , the waste material gets mixed with dust , soil and become solid wastes . According to the survey report of IUCN 1997 AD, solid waste generation per head per day for Kathmandu MetropolitanCity was 0.56 kg . The solid waste generation for all Municipalities in average was estimated to be 0.25 kg . per day per head . According to this estimation , the total daily waste generation is more than 1,000 metrictons daily from the urban areas of the country . There are various ways of management of solid wastes which are described below :
- Reduction : The wastes should be produced in the very low amount from various sources as far as possible. If usage of raw materials is reduced , the generation of waste also gets reduced . Some example of them is like we can develop the using of jute and paper bag . Not only this if we buy milk from the dairy then we can have our own pots . We can also classify the waste as biodegradable and non-biodegradable , which we can use it by according and reduce the amount of different types of waste .
- Recycling: It is the process of converting the unwanted or the waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of fresh raw materials, usage, air pollution and water pollution by decreasing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lowering emissions compared to plastic production. Most of the waste products can be reused . The waste material like metallic and polyethylene can be collected and separately from the solid waste. For example, waste paper can also be collected and recycle it again. The recycle always help to make things cheap and also help to conserve the raw materials . etc.
- Resue :The same things which can be used time and again in its original form is known as reuse . Like polyethene bags and glass bottles is non-degradable waste which can be used again . The materials which are made from polyethene should not be used as far as possible and if used once ,they should be used time and again. etc.