The arrangement or connection patterns of computers or nodes or devices used in the network is known as network topology.The network topology describes how the computers and networking devices are linked with each other.
There are different types of network topology they are as follows:
In this topology, all the computers are connected in a single cable.The common cable is known as network bus. The network interface card of each computer is connected to the network bus through a T-connector. The terminators are attached at both the end of the network bus.
In this topology, all the computers are connected with switch/hub.It is the most popular topology used today. In star topology, twisted pair cable is used foe joining nodes and hub. Each nodes is connected individually in the network. When any nodes data or message, they reach to the destination node through the hub/switch.
In this topology, all the computers or devices are connected to each other in a closed loop by single communication cable. Data transfer takes place in one direction from one node to another around the ring. It is also called loop network.
A protocol is a set of rule for communicating across the internet.
List of protocol
The network topology is the cabling pattern of interconnection of computers on the network. It can be defined as the physical layout of cabling for connecting computers and other network devices on the network which describe how the computers and networking devices are linked with each other and how they communicate.
The three topologies are as follows:
The topology in which nodes are connected in a daisy chain by a linear sequence of buses which is formed by joining many segments of coaxial cables with BNC jacks and T-connectors is known as bus topology.
The disadvantages of bus topology are as follows:
The star topology is the most popular network topology used to connect computers and other network devices in which nodes are connected to a centrally-located device called hub in the form of star.
The advantages of star topology are as follows:
Protocols are set of rules or language that the computer uses on the network to communicate and exchange data with each other. The network protocol manages and controls how communication between computers on the network takes place.
The bandwidth defines the amount of data transmitted per second through the communication channel or the data handling capacity of a communication system.
A client is a network computer that utilizes the resources of other network computers, including other clients. The client computer has its own processor, memory and storage and can maintain some of its resources and perform its own tasks and processing. A server is a computer on the network which controls and manages other computers on the network. It is provides facilities of the sharing of data, software and hardware resources to other computers. The server computer must be powerful computer having higher processing and storage capacity.
A hub is a network devices having multiple connecting ports or pints. It is used to connect computers or other network devices through its ports. It acts as a central point for different computers and other devices. Hub is mostly used in the connected nodes.
A switch is a networking device that has multiple connecting ports like hub. It is used to connect computers, network devices and network segments. A switch can determine source and destination of the data packets. It does not transmit the data packets to all nodes connected on the network like a hub does. It reduces network traffic and improves the network filtering and performance better.
A bridge is a network device that connects the different network segments or different network having same protocol. Multiple bridges can be used to form a large network by connecting several small networks. It also filters the data or cheeks incoming signals and decides whether to forward the signals or reject them.
A router is a network device that amplifies the incoming signals, creates a new copy of it and transmits the signals on the network. As the cabling distance the electric signals become weak on the network, in such a case a repeater is used to amplify the weak signals.
A repeater is a network device that amplifies the incoming signals, creates a new copy of it and transmits the signals on the network. As the cabling distance the electric signals become weak on the network, in such a case a repeater is used to amplify the weak signals.
Gateway is a dedicated server that connects two networks having dissimilar communication protocols. The gateway computer accepts the data packets from a network and forward to destination network.
Modem stand for Modulator Demodulator. It is a network device that transfers data from one computer to another trough telephone line. A modem can convert digital signals into analog signals and vice versa. The conversion of digital signal into analog is modulation and an analog signal into digital is demodulation.
A network interface card (NIC) is the adapter through which a computer is connected to a network. It should be installed in one of the empty expansion slots of a motherboard but is built-in in the present motherboard. Each NIC is assigned a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address by the manufacturer through which data is sent to the destination. It controls the flow of data in the computer network.
In ring topology, all computers and other devices are connected in the shape of a circle without any end point. Computers are connected together in a closed loop or a ring and signals are transmitted in one direction.