The damaged caused in the environment due to the unscientific and improper use of chemical substances is known as chemical pollution. Due to the use of chemicals in an improper way the environment is getting more and more unhygienic day by day, especially in those places with high population density.
Some of the major causes of chemical pollution are:
- Chemical Fertilizers
The chemical fertilizers that are used by farmers constitute major part of chemicals that get dissolved into water and reach rivers, streams and ponds. It is very harmful for the organisms that live in water as there becomes over exploitation of oxygen in water due to the decay of organisms after their death. It brings a gradual reduction of organisms present in water.
Insecticides cause various harmful impacts on the plants and organisms, as they kill many useful insects and damages plants. The chemicals of insecticides can cause some chronic and infectious diseases which may result in their death. They directly pollute our surrounding and can cause serious problems in our health.
- Refuses and Waste Material
The main causes of environmental pollution are dirt and waste material. There is a rapid degradation of environment due to the improper disposal of dirt and garbage in the surrounding. All the dirt and dust get mixed up in the surrounding air and water which causes atmospheric pollution.
Plastic is non- decomposable material. The things made from plastics such as utensils, bags, pipes, bottles, etc. are thrown in the surrounding which causes land pollution. Also, when these are brunt it creates air pollution in the surrounding. So, it is very important to keep an eye on how to use the plastic and where it is disposed off.
- Industries and Transportation
The smoke that comes from vehicles and industries are very harmful for living beings. The gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, etc. contribute much in the environment pollution. They get mixed up in the atmosphere and return back to earth as acid rain during rainfall. It decreases the quality of soil as well as fertility of the soil.
- Colors used in Foodstuffs
There has been a rapid increase in the use of food colors which are harmful for our body. These colors which are used in the foods can cause diseases that can lead to death.
- Synthetic Clingers
Synthetic clingers are made up of harmful chemicals that need to be carefully used. The plants should be protected from the water in which such chemicals are mixed.
- Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse effect is increasing rapidly due to the increase in the quantity of carbon dioxide in the surrounding. It has caused increment in the global temperature. High increase in the temperature cause melting of snow in the polar region in a rapid way that increases the level of sea. Dust and smoke in the surrounding can caused many chronic diseases in humans as well as animals. It has got many negative effects in the environment.
Control Measures of Chemical Pollution
- Strict rules and regulations regarding the establishment of industries, factories and other thermal plants should be far from the residential areas.
- The use of organic fertilizers should be focused instead of chemical fertilizers.
- Farmers should be given trainings regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides.
- The disposal of harmful chemicals into water and air should be controlled and alternative should be searched.
- Harmful smokes generated from industries and factories should not be disposed in the surrounding.
- The intake of food with colors should be avoided. One should be conscious of the results obtained by the intake of such foods.
- The use of unnecessary fertilizers and insecticides should be minimized.
- The regular check should be done in the factories, industries and vehicles which emit polluted smoke in surrounding.
Management of Bio-degradable and Non- Biodegradable Wastes
The unwanted and non useable goods generated from industries, commercial, factories, agricultural operations, etc. are said to be solid waste. The increasing amount of solid waste generated from domestic as well as industries is causing environmental imbalance. On the basis of characteristics, the solid waste can be classified as bio- degradable waste and non- biodegradable waste.
- Biodegradable Waste
Biodegradable waste are those types of waste which consists of organic matter that can be decomposed into simple components by micro- organisms in a short period of time. Some of the biodegradable waste are: kitchen wastes, dead bodies of animals, human wastes, paper, manures, etc.
- Non- Biodegradable Waste
Non- biodegradable waste are those type of waste which cannot be decomposed into any type of simpler components by micro organisms in short period of time. They contribute highly in the environmental pollution. Since, the waste cannot be converted into simpler organic compounds; they remain stable for a long period increases the problem of disposal. For example: plastic, metals, foam, etc.
Solid Waste Management
All the activities that include managing the waste from its inspection to its final disposal are known as waste management. The collection, storage, disposal, etc. in a safe place which doesn’t create any pollution is said to be solid waste management. There are a number of scientific and systematic ways for collection, disposal and storage of solid waste. If the waste is not managed in a proper manner, many diseases can spread in the surrounding. Many government and non- government institutions has established for managing the waste in a systemic manner. It is responsibility of everyone to keep our surrounding clean, dispose the garbage in a proper place, separate organic and inorganic waste so that it will be easy to recycle the waste. Some of the methods that can be used for solid waste management as listed as follows:
- Collection and Transportation
The government should implement rules regarding the collection and transportation of solid waste timely and efficiently. The disposal of waste should be far from the residential area as it may give birth to many diseases.
- Segregation and Waste Management
It is an important task to separate biodegradable and non- biodegradable. The biodegradable waste can be disposed separately whereas the non- biodegradable waste can be recycled and reused.
- Processing and Disposal
The establishment of waste management centers and recycling centers should be must for managing solid waste. It should be established far from the residential areas. The biodegradable waste after decomposing can also be used for agricultural purpose. It helps to minimize the impacts of waste.
- Landfill Dumping
The place built into or top of the ground in which the waste can be managed properly is said to be landfill site. It contains organic waste and save the surrounding from the contamination. A number of rules should be implemented to minimize the impacts of waste disposal in the environment. A proper designed landfill help to decline the impacts of waste in our surrounding environment.
- Waste Incineration
Incineration is one of the waste management techniques which include burning of waste materials. Certain types of waste materials are allowed to burn at high temperature in landfill site after proper checking.