Note on Citizen Identification and Citizenship

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The proof that a country gives its citizens their identification is Citizenship. This is also the constitutional basis as well. Nationality and Citizenship are different things. Citizenship relations can be broken, but nationality is always the same. There are two ways to get citizenship. First method is to get it on the basis of family ties. This is also known as the blood-relation based citizenship. The second method is birth based.

Difference between Nationality and Citizenship

  1. Citizenship is obtained by being a resident in a country, but nationality remains even if one resides abroad.
  2. Citizenship is temporary and can be abandoned, but nationality is permanent and cannot be abandoned.
  3. Citizenship is of a limited prospective, but nationality is broader prospective.
  4. Citizenship is the relation between country and law, but nationality is between pride and sentimentality.
  5. Citizenship carries individual opinion, but nationality carries a social sentiment.

Recognition of Citizenship

There are different norms related to citizenship. One can obtain a citizenship under the condition of birth within the country. Similarly, parental descent can be verified to acquire citizenship. In some countries the provision of dual citizenship has been given. Not having a citizenship is also a provision in Nepal. Similarly, a country can give out an honorary citizenship to citizens of other countries who are famous and have contributed to some common goal. In some countries, a second-class citizenship is given to its citizens. In that case, the citizen is barred from using some of the services and has fewer rights.

Provisions for obtaining a citizenship in Nepal Constitution

1. Descendent Citizenship

  1. If a person is born in Nepal, and their parents have a Nepali citizenship, then they can obtain a Nepali citizenship.
  2. If a person’s parents are Nepali citizen and have obtained their citizenship before the announcement of the constitution, the child can obtain a citizenship by claiming the parents are Nepali citizens.
  3. Orphans whose parents are not in contact are considered Nepali citizen until their parents are found and if they are descendent Nepali parents.
  4. Child is born in Nepal and has mother with Nepali citizenship, but father is not identified, then they are given Nepali citizenship based on hierarchy.

2. Naturalized Citizenship

  1. A foreign woman married to a citizen of Nepal.
  2. A child born to a Nepali female citizen from marriage with a foreign citizen in Nepal and having permanent residence in Nepal may be granted naturalized citizenship, given that the child has not acquired the citizenship of the foreign country on the basis of the citizenship of his/her father.

3. Honorary Citizenship

The Government of Nepal may grant naturalized citizenship as prescribed to those foreign citizens, who have contributed specially for the upliftment of science, philosophy, art, literature, world peace, human welfare or Nepalese industry, finance or social development

4. Non-residential Citizenship

Foreigners having citizenship of a country apart from the SAARC members and having settled there, and being the descent of his/her father or mother, grandfather or grandmother being a Nepali citizen can receive a non-residential citizenship. Such citizens don’t have all the rights but do get the economic, social and cultural rights.

  • The proof that a country gives its citizens their identification is Citizenship. This is also the constitutional basis as well. Nationality and Citizenship are different things.
  • Citizenship is obtained by being a resident in a country, but nationality remains even if one resides abroad.
  • Citizenship is temporary and can be abandoned, but nationality is permanent and cannot be abandoned.
  • Provisions for obtaining a citizenship in Nepal Constitution are Descendent Citizenship, Naturalized Citizenship, Honorary Citizenship, Non-residential Citizenship.
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state any four roles to be performed by citizens to preserves our social norms and values


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