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Note on Ammonia

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Molecular formula: NH3

Laboratory preparation

Principle: When finely crushed mixture of dry solid ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide are heated in the ratio 2:1, they react with each other to give ammonia gas.

2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2→CaCl2+ 2H2O + 2NH3

Precautions

  1. The apparatus must be made airtight.
  2. The hard glass test tube should be fixed in inclined position towards its mouth in order to prevent crack in it.
  3. Heat should be provided uniformly.
  4. The gas jar should be dried.

Test of ammonia

  1. A moist red litmus paper when inserted into the jar containing the gas, it turns into blue. 
  2. It forms white fume of NH4Cl when a glass rod dipped in HCl is taken by this gas.
  3. It can be identified by its pungent smell.

Properties of ammonia

Physical Properties

  1. It is a colorless gas with pungent smell. It brings tear to our eyes.
  2. It is highly soluble in water.
  3. It is lighter than air. So, it is collected by downward displacement of air.
  4. It liquifies at -33.4°C and solidifies at -78°C.
  5. It is neither combustible nor a supporter of combustion.
  6. It is basic in nature as it turns red litmus into blue.

Chemical properties

  1. Ammonia dissolves in water to give solution called ammonium hydroxide or ammonia solution NH3 + H2O → NH4OH
  2. Ammonia reacts with acids to produce white fume of ammonium salts. NH3+ HCl → NH4Cl
  3. Ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen when a electric spark is passed through it.2NH3→ N2+ 3H2

Uses of ammonia

  1. Ammonia is used in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, urea, etc. 
  2. It is used as cleansing agent for removing oil and grease.
  3. It is used for developingblueprint of maps.
  4. It is used in the manufacture of washing soda.
  5. Its solution is used as a laboratory reagent.
  6. Liquid ammonia is a very good refrigerant and is used in factories, cold storage, etc.

Word Meanings

  1. inclined: sloping; at an angle
  2. airtight: not allowing air to get in or out
  3. spark: a small flash of light produced by an electric current
  4. fume: smoke, gas, or something similar that smells strongly or is dangerous to breathe in
  5. grease: any thick oily substance, especially one that is used to make machines run smoothly
  6. refrigerant: a substance, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle. In most cycles it undergoes phase transitions from a liquid to a gas and back again
  7. combustion: the process of burning
  8. synthesize: to produce a substance by means of chemical or biological processes

  • When a finely crushed mixture of dry solid ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide are heated in the ratio 2:1, they react with each other to give ammonia gas.
  • The physical properties of ammonia are colourless gas, highly soluble in water, lighter than air, liquefies at -33.4oC and solidifies at -78oC.
  • Ammonia dissolves in water to give solution called ammonium hydroxide or ammonia solution. NH3 + H2O → NH4OH
  • Ammonia reacts with acids to produce white fume of ammonium salts. NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
  • Ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen when an electric spark is passed through it.
  • Ammonia is used to manufacture of chemical fertilizers, develop a blueprint of maps, manufacture of washing soda, etc.
.

Very Short Questions

When ammonia is treated with water, they react to give ammonium hydroxide.

NH3 (g) + H2O (l) → NH4OH (aq)

Haber's process is a method of manufacture of ammonia into a large scale. In this method, nitrogen and hydrogen gases in the ratio of 1:3 are allowed to react at 500°C and 200-600 atmospheric pressure. In presence of Fe as catalyst and Mo as a promoter.

500°C / Fe, Mo
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
200-900 atm.

During the process of ammonia formation, water is also produced. When passed through calcium oxide, ammonia gets dried because calcium oxide is anhydrous in nature and suck water from the ammonia mixture.

The apparatus must be made airtight. The glass tube must be slightly inclined to reduce the risk of crack in it. The uniform heating should be provided.

No change in color is seen because ammonia in itself cannot change the color of litmus. When it reacts with water and forms ammonium hydroxide (a true base) then only it will be able to change the color of the litmus.

Ammonia can be easily identified with its smell, which is pungent. Further, ammonia is basic, so it can turn red litmus into blue.

Following are the four uses of ammonia

  1. It is used in manufacture of fertilizers.
  2. It is used in the production of blue print.
  3. It is used in the production of plastics.
  4. It is used in manufacture of HNO3, washing soda, etc.

When ammonia is heated with sodium, soda amide is formed.

Na + NH3 → NaNH2 + H2

0%
  • Carbondioxide is ______  in nature.

    All the answers are correct


    neutral


    acidic


    basic


  • The molecular formula for ammonia is ______.

    NAOH


    NH3


    NH4


    NH4(OH)


  • Ammonia dissolves in water to give solution called ______.

    ammonium salts.


    calcium hydroxide


    ammonium hydroxid


    ammonium chloride


  • Ammona reacts with acids to produce ______.

    ammonium salts.


    Sodium chloride


    ammonium hydrooxide


    aamonium chloride


  • Ammonia decomposes into ______ when a electric spark is passed through it.

    nitrogen and oxygen
    hydrogen only
    nitrogen and hydrogen
    hydrogen and co2
  • When a mixture of dry and solid ______ are heated in the ratio 2:1, they react with each other to give ammonia.

    sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide


    sodium chloride and sodium hydrooxide


    ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide


    ammonium chloride and ammonium hydroxide


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sushant

Why hard glass test tube is inclined downward in laboratory preparation


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