Alkanes

Notes

Lab Preparataion of Methane

The above note is information about the mixture of sodium acetate and soda lime is taken in a hard glass test tube in the ratio of 1:3. The mixture is heated, as a result, methane gas starts to evolve which is passed through the delivery tube. Finally, gas is collected on gas jar by downward displacement of water.

Alkane

The aliphatic hydrocarbons which have carbon-carbon single bond are called alkane. The replacement or loss of one hydrogen from an alkane is called alkyl. The organic compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula are called isomers and the phenomenon is called isomerism.

Nomenclature and Isomerism

The IUPAC nomenclature system is a set of logical rules devised and used by organic chemists to circumvent problems caused by arbitrary nomenclature.the name of the compound is written out with the substituents in alphabetical order followed by the base name (derived from the number of carbons in the parent chain). Commas are used between numbers and dashes are used between letters and numbers. There are no spaces in the name

Preliminary ideas about reaction and Fundamental principles

Equal distributions of the electron between two atoms take place in homolytic bond fission. Homolytic bond fission forms free electrons. Unequal distribution of electron takes place between two atoms in heterolytic bond fission. Heterolytic bond fission gives rise to electrophile and nucleophile. Electrophiles are electron deficient atom or group of the atom which attacks electron rich center. The atom or group having an odd number of an electron is called free radical.