Ecology

Notes

Introduction to Ecology

This note contains detail information about ecology along with its branches and factors. According to Odum, ecology is the scientific study of structure and function of nature. According to the Ernst Hackel, ecology is the scientific study of interactions of organisms with the components of the physical environment as well as with other organisms. According to Krebs(1985), ecology is the scientific study of interactions that determines the distribution and abundance of organisms.

Temperature

This note contains detail information about its types and its influence on organisms. The degree of hotness or coldness of a body is called temperature. Temperature is one of the most essential and changeable environmental factors which influence all forms of life. Temperature generally influences the behavioural pattern of animals. The very low and high (both) temperature retard the growth and development of plants. The high temperature causes heat injury whereas low temperature causes freezing injury.

Climatic factors; Light

This note contains detail information about climatic factor light. The climatic factors are non-living factors which are responsible for determining the climatic conditions of an area. The climatic factors include light, temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, fire, atmosphere etc. Light is the main source of energy in the earth for the existence of life.

Climatic factors; Humidity and Wind

This note contains detail information about wind and humidity along with its ecological effects. The amount of water vapour present in a unit volume of air is called absolute humidity. The amount of water vapour present in a unit volume of air is called absolute humidity. The amount of water vapour in the air at specific temperature compared to the maximum water vapour that the air can hold without condensing is called relative humidity. The moving current of air is called a wind.

Climatic factors; Fire and Atmosphere

This note contains detail information about fire and atmosphere along with its importance. Fire is naturally caused by lightning or volcanic activities, but most of the fire is caused by human activities. The atmosphere is the different gases envelope which surrounds the earth. It contains different types of gases like; oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases.

Climatic factors; Precipitation

This note contains detail information about climatic factor precipitation along with its effects on an organism. Precipitation is the product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls on the ground. It includes all moistures in the form of rain, snow, hail, sleet, dew, frost, drizzle etc. The precipitation depends on the season, wind, air, pressure and temperature.

Edaphic Factors

This note contains detail information about types of soil and its influence on an organism. The factors concerned with the soil are called edaphic factor. The soil is the upper layer of the earth which provides nutrients, water supply, anchorage to the plants. It is the mixture of inorganic matters and organic matters. Inorganic matters are derived by weathering process whereas organic matters are derived from the decomposition of dead remains.

Topographic factors

This note contains detail information about topography and its effect on organisms. The factors concerned with topography or physical features of an area are called topographic factors. Topographic factors include height, direction of slope, steepness of the slope. The topographic factors are also called indirect factors as they influence the growth and development of organisms by bringing variations in climatic factors.